Hittite:Glossing of common Hittite forms

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Grammatical Forms[edit]

Pronouns[edit]

Independent Personal Pronouns[edit]

First and second person.

Traditional Advanced Expert
ūk ūk 1SG.NOM ūk 1SG.NOM
ammuk ammuk 1SG.NOM ammuk 1SG.NOM
ammuk ammuk 1SG.ACC ammuk 1SG.ACC
ammel ammel 1SG:GEN amm-el 1SG-GEN
ammuk ammuk 1SG.DATLOC ammuk 1SG.DATLOC
ammēdaz ammēdaz 1SG:ABL amm-ēdaz 1SG-ABL
wēš wēš 1PL.NOM wēš 1PL.NOM
anzāš anzāš 1PL:ACC anz-āš 1PL-ACC
anzel anzel 1PL:GEN anz-el 1PL-GEN
anzāš anzāš 1PL:DATLOC anz-āš 1PL-DATLOC
anzēdaš anzēdaš 1PL:ABL anz-ēdaš 1PL-ABL
zik zik 1SG.NOM zik 1SG.NOM
tuk tuk 1SG.ACC tuk 1SG.ACC
tuel tuel 1SG:GEN tu-el 1SG-GEN
tuk tuk 1SG.DATLOC tuk 1SG.DATLOC
tuēdaz tuēdaz 1SG:ABL tu-ēdaz 1SG-ABL
šumeš šumeš 1PL:NOM šum-eš 1PL-NOM
šumaš šumaš 1PL:ACC šum-aš 1PL-ACC
šumenzan šumenzan 1PL:GEN šum-enzan 1PL-GEN
šumel šumel 1PL:GEN šum-el 1PL-GEN
šumaš šumaš 1PL:DATLOC šum-aš 1PL-DATLOC
šumēdaz šumēdaz 1PL:ABL šum-ēdaz 1PL-ABL

For these and other forms of the independent personal pronouns of the first and second person, see Hoffner & Melchert 2008: §5.8, p. 134. In Hittite the demonstrative pronoun apā- ‘that, the aforementioned (one)’, for which see #Demonstrative Pronouns below, functions as the independent pronoun for the third person.

Enclitic Personal Pronouns[edit]

The enclitic personal pronouns can only occur in specific positions in the clause; in most cases they are attached to the first accented word of the clause. In addition, they can only occur in certain positions in relation to other clitics attached to the same word. See for these issues Hoffner & Melchert 2008: §§30.15-30.21, pp. 410-412.

First and second person.

Traditional Advanced Expert
=mu =mu =1SG.ACC =mu =1SG.ACC
=mu =mu =1SG.DAT =mu =1SG.DAT
=naš =naš =1PL.ACC =naš =1PL.ACC
=naš =naš =1PL.DAT =naš =1PL.DAT
=ta =ta =2SG.ACC =ta =2SG.ACC
=ta =ta =2SG.DAT =ta =2SG.DAT
=šmaš =šmaš =2PL.ACC =šmaš =2PL.ACC
=šmaš =šmaš =2PL.DAT =šmaš =2PL.DAT

Cf. Hoffner & Melchert 2008: §5.12, p. 135.

Third person.

Traditional Advanced Expert
=aš =aš =3SG.NOM.C =aš =3SG.NOM.C
=an =an =3SG.ACC.C =an =3SG.ACC.C
=at =at =3SG.NOM/ACC.N =at =3SG.NOM/ACC.N
=ši =ši =3SG.DAT =ši =3SG.DAT
=e =e =3PL.NOM.C =e =3PL.NOM.C
=at =at =3PL.NOM.C =at =3PL.NOM.C
=uš =uš =3PL.ACC.C =uš =3PL.ACC.C
=aš =aš =3PL.ACC.C =aš =3PL.ACC.C
=e =e =3PL.NOM/ACC.N =e =3PL.NOM/ACC.N
=at =at =3PL.NOM/ACC.N =at =3PL.NOM/ACC.N
=šmaš =šmaš =3PL.DAT =šmaš =3PL.DAT

Cf. Hoffner & Melchert 2008: §5.12, p. 135.

Enclitic Possessive Pronouns[edit]

In Hittite enclitic possessive pronouns could be suffixed to a noun to express possession. In these instances both the noun and the enclitic possessive pronoun are declined and they agree in number, gender, and case. See Hoffner & Melchert 2008: §6.1 (p. 137), §6.5 (p. 139).

Traditional Advanced Expert
=miš =miš =1SG.POSS:NOM.SG.C =m-iš =1SG.POSS-NOM.SG.C
=man =man =1SG.POSS:ACC.SG.C =m-an =1SG.POSS-ACC.SG.C
=met =met =1SG.POSS:NOM/ACC.SG.N =m-et =1SG.POSS-NOM/ACC.SG.N
=mi =mi =1SG.POSS:VOC.SG =m-i =1SG.POSS-VOC.SG
=maš =maš =1SG.POSS:GEN.SG =m-aš =1SG.POSS-GEN.SG
=mi =mi =1SG.POSS:DATLOC.SG =m-i =1SG.POSS-DATLOC.SG
=ma =ma =1SG.POSS:ALL.SG =m-a =1SG.POSS-ALL.SG
=mit =mit =1SG.POSS:ABL/INS =m-it =1SG.POSS-ABL/INS
=miš =miš =1SG.POSS:NOM.PL.C =m-iš =1SG.POSS-NOM.PL.C
=muš =muš =1SG.POSS:ACC.PL.C =m-uš =1SG.POSS-ACC.PL.C
=met =met =1SG.POSS:NOM/ACC.PL.N =m-et =1SG.POSS-NOM/ACC.PL.N
=man =man =1SG.POSS:GEN.PL =m-an =1SG.POSS-GEN.PL
=tiš =tiš =2SG.POSS:NOM.SG.C =t-iš =2SG.POSS-NOM.SG.C
=tan =tan =2SG.POSS:ACC.SG.C =t-an =2SG.POSS-ACC.SG.C
=tet =tet =2SG.POSS:NOM/ACC.SG.N =t-et =2SG.POSS-NOM/ACC.SG.N
=taš =taš =2SG.POSS:GEN.SG =t-aš =2SG.POSS-GEN.SG
=ti =ti =2SG.POSS:DATLOC.SG =t-i =2SG.POSS-DATLOC.SG
=ta =ta =2SG.POSS:ALL.SG =t-a =2SG.POSS-ALL.SG
=tit =tit =2SG.POSS:ABL/INS =t-it =2SG.POSS-ABL/INS
=tiš =tiš =2SG.POSS:NOM.PL.C =t-iš =2SG.POSS-NOM.PL.C
=tuš =tuš =2SG.POSS:ACC.PL.C =t-uš =2SG.POSS-ACC.PL.C
=taš =taš =2SG.POSS:DATLOC.PL =t-aš =2SG.POSS-DATLOC.PL
=šiš =šiš =3SG.POSS:NOM.SG.C =š-iš =3SG.POSS-NOM.SG.C
=šan =šan =3SG.POSS:ACC.SG.C =š-an =3SG.POSS-ACC.SG.C
=šet =šet =3SG.POSS:NOM/ACC.SG.N =š-et =3SG.POSS-NOM/ACC.SG.N
=šaš =šaš =3SG.POSS:GEN.SG =š-aš =3SG.POSS-GEN.SG
=ši =ši =3SG.POSS:DATLOC.SG =š-i =3SG.POSS-DATLOC.SG
=ša =ša =3SG.POSS:ALL.SG =š-a =3SG.POSS-ALL.SG
=šet =šet =3SG.POSS:ABL/INS =š-et =3SG.POSS-ABL/INS
=šiš =šiš =3SG.POSS:NOM.PL.C =š-iš =3SG.POSS-NOM.PL.C
=šuš =šuš =3SG.POSS:ACC.PL.C =š-uš =3SG.POSS-ACC.PL.C
=šet =šet =3SG.POSS:NOM/ACC.PL.N =š-et =3SG.POSS-NOM/ACC.PL.N
=šaš =šaš =3SG.POSS:DATLOC.PL =š-aš =3SG.POSS-DATLOC.PL
=šummiš =šummiš =1PL.POSS:NOM.SG.C =šumm-iš =1PL.POSS-NOM.SG.C
=šumman =šumman =1PL.POSS:ACC.SG.C =šumm-an =1PL.POSS-ACC.SG.C
=šummet =šummet =1PL.POSS:NOM/ACC.SG.N =šumm-et =1PL.POSS-NOM/ACC.SG.N
=šum[mi] =šum[mi] =1PL.POSS:VOC.SG =šum[m-i] =1PL.POSS-VOC.SG
=šummaš =šummaš =1PL.POSS:GEN.SG =šumm-aš =1PL.POSS-GEN.SG
=šummi =šummi =1PL.POSS:DATLOC.SG =šumm-i =1PL.POSS-DATLOC.SG
=šummiš =šummiš =1PL.POSS:NOM.PL.C =šumm-iš =1PL.POSS-NOM.PL.C
=šummuš =šummuš =1PL.POSS:ACC.PL.C =šumm-uš =1PL.POSS-ACC.PL.C
=šumet =šumet =1PL.POSS:NOM/ACC.PL.N =šum-et =1PL.POSS-NOM/ACC.PL.N
=šmiš =šmiš =2PL.POSS:NOM.SG.C =šm-iš =2PL.POSS-NOM.SG.C
=šman =šman =2PL.POSS:ACC.SG.C =šm-an =2PL.POSS-ACC.SG.C
=šmet =šmet =2PL.POSS:NOM/ACC.SG.N =šm-et =2PL.POSS-NOM/ACC.SG.N
=šmi =šmi =2PL.POSS:DATLOC.SG =šm-i =2PL.POSS-DATLOC.SG
=šmit =šmit =2PL.POSS:ABL/INS =šm-it =2PL.POSS-ABL/INS
=šmeš =šmeš =2PL.POSS:NOM.PL.C =šm-eš =2PL.POSS-NOM.PL.C
=šmuš =šmuš =2PL.POSS:ACC.PL.C =šm-uš =2PL.POSS-ACC.PL.C
=šmiš =šmiš =3PL.POSS:NOM.SG.C =šm-iš =3PL.POSS-NOM.SG.C
=šman =šman =3PL.POSS:ACC.SG.C =šm-an =3PL.POSS-ACC.SG.C
=šmet =šmet =3PL.POSS:NOM/ACC.SG.N =šm-et =3PL.POSS-NOM/ACC.SG.N
=šmi =šmi =3PL.POSS:DATLOC.SG =šm-i =3PL.POSS-DATLOC.SG
=šmit =šmit =3PL.POSS:ABL/INS =šm-it =3PL.POSS-ABL/INS
=šmeš =šmeš =3PL.POSS:NOM.PL.C =šm-eš =3PL.POSS-NOM.PL.C
=šmuš =šmuš =3PL.POSS:ACC.PL.C =šm-uš =3PL.POSS-ACC.PL.C
=šmet =šmet =3PL.POSS:NOM/ACC.PL.N =šm-et =3PL.POSS-NOM/ACC.PL.N

See for these and variant forms, Hoffner & Melchert 2008: §6.4, pp. 138f.

Demonstrative Pronouns[edit]

Proximal demonstrative pronoun kā- ‘this’.

Traditional Advanced Expert
kāš kāš this.DEM:NOM.SG.C kā-š this.DEM-NOM.SG.C
kūn kūn this.DEM:ACC.SG.C kū-n this.DEM-ACC.SG.C
this.DEM.NOM/ACC.SG.N this.DEM.NOM/ACC.SG.N
kēl kēl this.DEM:GEN.SG k-ēl this.DEM-GEN.SG
kēdani kēdani this.DEM:DATLOC.SG k-ēdani this.DEM-DATLOC.SG
kez kez this.DEM:ABL ke-z this.DEM-ABL
kēdanda kēdanda this.DEM:INS k-ēdanda this.DEM-INS
kēt kēt this.DEM:INS k-ēt this.DEM-INS
this.DEM.NOM.PL.C this.DEM.NOM.PL.C
kūš kūš this.DEM:ACC.PL.C k-ūš this.DEM-ACC.PL.C
this.DEM.NOM/ACC.PL.N this.DEM.NOM/ACC.PL.N
kinzan kinzan this.DEM:GEN.PL k-inzan this.DEM-GEN.PL
kēdaš kēdaš this.DEM:DATLOC.PL k-ēdaš this.DEM-DATLOC.PL

Cf. Hoffner & Melchert 2008: §7.3, p. 143.

Medial demonstrative pronoun apā- ‘that’.

Traditional Advanced Expert
apāš apāš that.DEM:NOM.SG.C apā-š that.DEM-NOM.SG.C
apūn apūn that.DEM:ACC.SG.C apū-n that.DEM-ACC.SG.C
apāt apāt that.DEM:NOM/ACC.SG.N apā-t that.DEM-NOM/ACC.SG.N
apēl apēl that.DEM:GEN.SG ap-ēl that.DEM-GEN.SG
apedani apedani that.DEM:DATLOC.SG ap-edani that.DEM-DATLOC.SG
apēz apēz that.DEM:ABL apē-z that.DEM-ABL
apedanda apedanda that.DEM:INS ap-edanda that.DEM-INS
apēt apēt that.DEM:INS ap-ēt that.DEM-INS
apē apē that.DEM.NOM.PL.C apē that.DEM.NOM.PL.C
apūš apūš that.DEM:ACC.PL.C ap-ūš that.DEM-ACC.PL.C
apē apē that.DEM.NOM/ACC.PL.N apē that.DEM.NOM/ACC.PL.N
apenzan apenzan that.DEM:GEN.PL ap-enzan that.DEM-GEN.PL
apēdaš apēdaš that.DEM:DATLOC.PL ap-ēdaš that.DEM-DATLOC.PL

Cf. Hoffner & Melchert 2008: §7.3, p. 143.

Demonstrative pronoun aši, uni, ini.

Traditional Advanced Expert
aši aši DEM.NOM.SG.C aši DEM.NOM.SG.C
uni uni DEM.ACC.SG.C uni DEM.ACC.SG.C
ini ini DEM.NOM/ACC.N ini DEM.NOM/ACC.N
edani edani DEM.DATLOC edani DEM.DATLOC
edezza edezza DEM.ABL edezza DEM.ABL

Cf. Hoffner & Melchert 2008: §7.11, p. 145.

Interrogative and Relative Pronoun[edit]

In Hittite kui- ‘who, which’ functions both as interrogative pronoun and as relative pronoun.

Traditional Advanced Expert
kuiš kuiš who:NOM.SG.C kui-š who-NOM.SG.C
kuin kuin who:ACC.SG.C kui-n who-ACC.SG.C
kuit kuit who:NOM/ACC.SG.N kui-t who-NOM/ACC.SG.N
kuēl kuēl who:GEN.SG ku-ēl who-GEN.SG
kuedani kuedani who:DATLOC.SG ku-edani who-DATLOC.SG
kuēz kuēz who:ABL kuē-z who-ABL
kuiēš kuiēš who:NOM.PL.C kui-ēš who-NOM.PL.C
kuiuš kuiuš who:ACC.PL.C kui-uš who-ACC.PL.C
kue kue who.NOM/ACC.PL.N kue who.NOM/ACC.PL.N
kuedaš kuedaš who:DATLOC.PL ku-edaš who-DATLOC.PL


Indefinite Pronoun[edit]

The indefinite pronoun kuiški ‘some(one), any(one)’ is based on the inflected kui- (see #Interrogative and Relative Pronoun above) to which a particle -kki/-kka is suffixed.

Traditional Advanced Expert
kuiški kuiški someone:NOM.SG.C kui-š-ki someone-NOM.SG.C-PTCL
kuinki kuinki someone:ACC.SG.C kui-n-ki someone-ACC.SG.C-PTCL
kuitki kuitki someone:NOM/ACC.SG.N kui-t-ki someone-NOM/ACC.SG.N-PTCL
kuēlka kuēlka someone:GEN.SG ku-ēl-ka someone-GEN.SG-PTCL
kuedanikki kuedanikki someone:DATLOC.SG ku-edani-kki someone-DATLOC.SG-PTCL
kuezka kuezka someone:ABL/INS kue-z-ka someone-ABL/INS-PTCL
kuiēška kuiēška someone:NOM.PL.C kui-ēš-ka someone-NOM.PL.C-PTCL
kuiušga kuiušga someone:ACC.PL.C kui-uš-ga someone-ACC.PL.C-PTCL
kuēkka kuēkka someone.NOM/ACC.PL.N kuē-kka someone.NOM/ACC.PL.N-PTCL
kuedaška kuedaška someone:DATLOC.PL ku-edaš-ka someone-DATLOC.PL-PTCL

Cf. Hoffner & Melchert 2008: §8.3, p. 150.

Distributive Pronoun[edit]

The distributive pronoun kuišša ‘each, every’ is based on the inflected kui- (see #Interrogative and Relative Pronoun above) to which the conjunction -a/-ya ‘also, and’ is suffixed.

Traditional Advanced Expert
kuišša kuišša each:NOM.SG.C kui-šš-a each-NOM.SG.C-CNJ
kuinna kuinna each:ACC.SG.C kui-nn-a each-ACC.SG.C-CNJ
kuitta kuitta each:NOM/ACC.SG.N kui-tt-a each-NOM/ACC.SG.N-CNJ
kuella kuella each:GEN.SG ku-ell-a each-GEN.SG-CNJ
kuedaniya kuedaniya each:DATLOC.SG ku-edani-ya each-DATLOC.SG-CNJ
kuezziya kuezziya each:ABL/INS kue-zz-iya each-ABL/INS-CNJ
kuiušša kuiušša each:ACC.PL.C kui-ušš-a each-ACC.PL.C-CNJ
kuedašša kuedašša each:DATLOC.PL ku-edašš-a each-DATLOC.PL-CNJ

Cf. Hoffner & Melchert 2008: §8.3, p. 150.

Adjective with Pronominal Inflection: tamai- ‘other’[edit]

Traditional Advanced Expert
tamaiš tamaiš other:NOM.SG.C tamai-š other-NOM.SG.C
tamain tamain other:ACC.SG.C tamai-n other-ACC.SG.C
tamai tamai other.NOM/ACC.SG.N tamai other.NOM/ACC.SG.N
damēl damēl other:GEN.SG dam-ēl other-GEN.SG
damedani damedani other:DATLOC.SG dam-edani other-DATLOC.SG
tamatta tamatta other:ALL.SG tama-tta other-ALL.SG
tamedaz tamedaz other:ABL tam-edaz other-ABL
tamaēš tamaēš other:NOM.PL.C tama-ēš other-NOM.PL.C
tamāuš tamāuš other:ACC.PL.C tamā-uš other-ACC.PL.C
tamai tamai other.NOM/ACC.PL.N tamai other.NOM/ACC.PL.N
damedaš damedaš other:DATLOC/PL dam-edaš other-DATLOC/PL

Cf. Hoffner & Melchert 2008: §8.10, p. 152.

Nouns and Adjectives[edit]

Hittite shows many different nominal stems. Below, the noun and adjective declensions of the a-stem and the i-stem, as well as a selection of other stems are presented. Hoffner & Melchert (2008: chapter 4) present the paradigms of all nominal stems. See for the basic scheme of noun and adjective endings in Hittite Hoffner & Melchert 2008: §3.14, pp. 69f.

a-Stem[edit]

Common Gender a-Stem Nouns[edit]
Traditional Advanced Expert
antuḫšaš antuḫšaš man:C.NOM.SG antuḫša-š man-C.NOM.SG
antuḫšan antuḫšan man:C.ACC.SG antuḫša-n man-C.ACC.SG
antuḫšaš antuḫšaš man.C:GEN.SG antuḫš-aš man.C-GEN.SG
antuḫši antuḫši man.C:DATLOC.SG antuḫš-i man.C-DATLOC.SG
antuḫšaz antuḫšaz man.C:ABL antuḫš-az man.C-ABL
antuḫšet antuḫšet man.C:INS antuḫš-et man.C-INS
antuḫšeš antuḫšeš man:C.NOM.PL antuḫš-eš man-C.NOM.PL
antuḫšuš antuḫšuš man:C.ACC.PL antuḫš-uš man-C.ACC.PL
antuḫšaš antuḫšaš man.C:GEN.PL antuḫš-aš man.C-GEN.PL
antuḫšaš antuḫšaš man.C:DATLOC.PL antuḫš-aš man.C-DATLOC.PL

For these and other forms of antuwaḫḫa-/antuḫša- ‘man, human being, person’, see Hoffner & Melchert 2008: §4.2, pp.79f. and Kloekhorst 2008: 188f.

Traditional Advanced Expert
attaš attaš father:C.NOM.SG atta-š father-C.NOM.SG
attan attan father:C.ACC.SG atta-n father-C.ACC.SG
atta atta father.C.VOC.SG atta father.C.VOC.SG
attaš attaš father.C:GEN.SG att-aš father.C-GEN.SG
atti atti father.C:DATLOC.SG att-i father.C-DATLOC.SG
attaz attaz father.C:ABL att-az father.C-ABL
attiēš attiēš father:C.NOM.PL att-iēš father-C.NOM.PL
attuš attuš father:C.ACC.PL att-uš father-C.ACC.PL
addaš addaš father.C:GEN.PL add-aš father.C-GEN.PL
addaš addaš father.C:DATLOC.PL add-aš father.C-DATLOC.PL

For these and other forms of atta- ‘father’, see Hoffner & Melchert 2008: §4.2, pp.79f. and Kloekhorst 2008: 225.

Traditional Advanced Expert
arunaš arunaš sea:C.NOM.SG aruna-š sea-C.NOM.SG
arunan arunan sea:C.ACC.SG aruna-n sea-C.ACC.SG
arunaš arunaš sea.C:GEN.SG arun-aš sea.C-GEN.SG
aruni aruni sea.C:DATLOC.SG arun-i sea.C-DATLOC.SG
aruna aruna sea.C:ALL.SG arun-a sea.C-ALL.SG
arunaz arunaz sea.C:ABL arun-az sea.C-ABL
arunuš arunuš sea:C.ACC.PL arun-uš sea-C.ACC.PL
arunaš arunaš sea.C:GEN.PL arun-aš sea.C-GEN.PL

For these and other forms of aruna- ‘sea’, see Hoffner & Melchert 2008: §4.2, p.81 and Kloekhorst 2008: 212.

Traditional Advanced Expert
lālaš lālaš tongue:C.NOM.SG lāla-š tongue-C.NOM.SG
lālan lālan tongue:C.ACC.SG lāla-n tongue-C.ACC.SG
lāli lāli tongue.C:VOC.SG lāl-i tongue.C-VOC.SG
lālaš lālaš tongue.C:GEN.SG lāl-aš tongue.C-GEN.SG
lāli lāli tongue.C:DATLOC.SG lāl-i tongue.C-DATLOC.SG
lālaza lālaza tongue.C:ABL lāl-aza tongue.C-ABL
lālit lālit tongue.C:INS lāl-it tongue.C-INS
lāleš lāleš tongue:C.NOM.PL lāl-eš tongue-C.NOM.PL
lāluš lāluš tongue:C.ACC.PL lāl-uš tongue-C.ACC.PL

Cf. Hoffner & Melchert 2008: §4.2, p. 81.

Neuter a-Stem Nouns[edit]
Traditional Advanced Expert
pēdan pēdan place:N.NOM/ACC.SG pēda-n place-N.NOM/ACC.SG
pēdaš pēdaš place.N:GEN.SG pēd-aš place.N-GEN.SG
pēdi pēdi place.N:DATLOC.SG pēd-i place.N-DATLOC.SG
pēdaz pēdaz place.N:ABL pēd-az place.N-ABL
peda peda place.N.NOM/ACC.N peda place.N.NOM/ACC.N
pēdaš pēdaš place.N:GEN.PL pēd-aš place.N-GEN.PL
pēdaš pēdaš place.N:DATLOC.PL pēd-aš place.N-DATLOC.PL

Cf. Hoffner & Melchert 2008: §4.6, p. 82 and Kloekhorst 2008: 672.

Traditional Advanced Expert
yugan yugan yoke:N.NOM/ACC.SG yuga-n yoke-N.NOM/ACC.SG
yugaš yugaš yoke.N:GEN.SG yug-aš yoke.N-GEN.SG
yuki yuki yoke.N:DATLOC.PL yuk-i yoke.N-DATLOC.PL
yukit yukit yoke.N:INS yuk-it yoke.N-INS

Cf. Hoffner & Melchert 2008: §4.6, p. 82 and Kloekhorst: 2008: 423.

a-Stem Adjectives[edit]
Traditional Advanced Expert
alwanzenaš alwanzenaš bewitching.ADJ:NOM.SG.C alwanzena-š bewitching.ADJ-NOM.SG.C
alwanzenan alwanzenan bewitching.ADJ:ACC.SG.C alwanzena-n bewitching.ADJ-ACC.SG.C
alwanzenan alwanzenan bewitching.ADJ:NOM/ACC.SG.N alwanzena-n bewitching.ADJ-NOM/ACC.SG.N
alwanzenaš alwanzenaš bewitching.ADJ:GEN.SG alwanzen-aš bewitching.ADJ-GEN.SG
alwanzeni alwanzeni bewitching.ADJ:DATLOC.SG alwanzen-i bewitching.ADJ-DATLOC.SG
alwanzena alwanzena bewitching.ADJ:ALL.SG alwanzen-a bewitching.ADJ-ALL.SG
alwanzenaz alwanzenaz bewitching.ADJ:ABL alwanzena-z bewitching.ADJ-ABL
alwanzenit alwanzenit bewitching.ADJ:INS alwanzen-it bewitching.ADJ-INS
alwaneneš alwaneneš bewitching.ADJ:NOM.PL.C alwanen-eš bewitching.ADJ-NOM.PL.C
alwanzenuš alwanzenuš bewitching.ADJ:ACC.PL.C alwanzen-uš bewitching.ADJ-ACC.PL.C
alwanzena alwanzena bewitching.ADJ.NOM/ACC.PL.N alwanzena bewitching.ADJ.NOM/ACC.PL.N
alwanzenaš alwanzenaš bewitching.ADJ:GEN.PL alwanzen-aš bewitching.ADJ-GEN.PL
alwanzenaš alwanzenaš bewitching.ADJ:DATLOC.PL alwanzen-aš bewitching.ADJ-DATLOC.PL

Cf. Hoffner & Melchert 2008: §4.10, p. 84.

i-Stem[edit]

Common Gender i-Stem Nouns[edit]
Traditional Advanced Expert
ḫalkiš ḫalkiš grain:C.NOM.SG ḫalki-š grain-C.NOM.SG
ḫalkin ḫalkin grain:C.ACC.SG ḫalki-n grain-C.ACC.SG
ḫalkiaš ḫalkiaš grain.C:GEN.SG ḫalki-aš grain.C-GEN.SG
ḫalki ḫalki grain.C:DATLOC.SG ḫalk-i grain.C-DATLOC.SG
ḫalkiyaza ḫalkiyaza grain.C:ABL ḫalkiy-aza grain.C-ABL
ḫalkit ḫalkit grain.C:INS ḫalk-it grain.C-INS
ḫalkiēš ḫalkiēš grain:C.NOM.PL ḫalki-ēš grain-C.NOM.PL
ḫalkiuš ḫalkiuš grain:C.ACC.PL ḫalki-uš grain-C.ACC.PL
ḫalkiaš ḫalkiaš grain.C:GEN.PL ḫalki-aš grain.C-GEN.PL
ḫalkiaš ḫalkiaš grain.C:DATLOC.PL ḫalki-aš grain.C-DATLOC.PL

Cf. Hoffner & Melchert 2008: §4.23, p. 88.

Neuter i-Stem Nouns[edit]
Traditional Advanced Expert
tuppi tuppi clay_tablet.N.NOM/ACC.SG tuppi clay_tablet.N.NOM/ACC.SG
tuppianza tuppianza clay_tablet.N:ANIM:C.NOM.SG tuppi-an-za clay_tablet.N-ANIM-C.NOM.SG
tuppiaš tuppiaš clay_tablet.N:GEN.SG tuppi-aš clay_tablet.N-GEN.SG
tuppi tuppi clay_tablet.N:DATLOC.SG tupp-i clay_tablet.N-DATLOC.SG
tuppiaz tuppiaz clay_tablet.N:ABL tuppi-az clay_tablet.N-ABL

Cf. Hoffner & Melchert 2008: §4.24, p. 90. One often finds the form tuppianza referred to as an ergative (ERG) (e.g. Hoffner & Melchert 2008: §3.8, §3.21), which is somewhat misleading. The ending -anza is not an actual case ending. In fact, Hittite does not have an ergative case at all, even though one often finds the term in the literature. In Hittite, a neuter noun cannot function as the subject of a transitive verb. In case it was necessary that a neuter noun functioned as the subject of a transitive verb, the noun was “animatized” by attaching the suffix -ant- to the stem of the noun. This suffix transforms the gender of the noun from neuter into common gender. Additionally, the common gender nominative case ending is attached (Kloekhorst 2008:184f.). Thus, tuppianza it is an “animatized” form of the neuter tuppi- ‘clay tablet’ and contains both the suffix -ant- and the case ending of the common gender nominative singular . The gloss suggested above uses ANIM for the “animatizing” suffix -ant-.

i-Stem Adjectives[edit]
Traditional Advanced Expert
karūiliš karūiliš old.ADJ:NOM.SG.C karūili-š old.ADJ:NOM.SG.C
karūilin karūilin old.ADJ:ACC.SG.C karūili-n old.ADJ:ACC.SG.C
karūili karūili old.ADJ.NOM/ACC.SG.N karūili old.ADJ.NOM/ACC.SG.N
karūiliyaš karūiliyaš old.ADJ:GEN.SG karūiliy-aš old.ADJ:GEN.SG
karūili karūili old.ADJ:DATLOC.SG karūil-i old.ADJ:DATLOC.SG
karūiliyaz karūiliyaz old.ADJ:ABL karūiliy-az old.ADJ:ABL
karūi[li]t karūilit old.ADJ:INS karūil-it old.ADJ:INS
karūilieš karūilieš old.ADJ:NOM.PL.C karūili-eš old.ADJ:NOM.PL.C
karūiliuš karūiliuš old.ADJ:ACC.PL.C karūili-uš old.ADJ:ACC.PL.C
karūila karūila old.ADJ:NOM/ACC.PL.N karūil-a old.ADJ:NOM/ACC.PL.N
karūiliyaš karūiliyaš old.ADJ:DATLOC.PL karūiliy-aš old.ADJ:DATLOC.PL

Cf. Hoffner & Melchert 2008: §4.38, p.96.

Selected Stems[edit]

ul-Stem[edit]
Traditional Advanced Expert
waštul waštul offense.NOM/ACC.SG.N waštul offense.NOM/ACC.SG.N
waštulaš waštulaš offense.N:GEN.SG waštul-aš offense.N-GEN.SG
wašduli wašduli offense.N:DATLOC.SG wašdul-i offense.N-DATLOC.SG
waštullaz waštullaz offense.N:ABL waštull-az offense.N-ABL
wašdulit wašdulit offense.N:INS wašdul-it offense.N-INS
waštul waštul offense.NOM/ACC.PL.N waštul offense.NOM/ACC.PL.N

Cf. Hoffner & Melchert 2008: §4.66, p. 108.

Neuter n-Stem Noun with Ablaut[edit]
Traditional Advanced Expert
tēkan tēkan earth.NOM/ACCC.SG.N tēkan earth.NOM/ACCC.SG.N
taknaš taknaš earth.N:GEN.SG takn-aš earth.N-GEN.SG
taknī taknī earth.N:DATLOC.SG takn-ī earth.N-DATLOC.SG
taknā taknā earth.N:ALL takn-ā earth.N-ALL
taknāz taknāz earth.N:ABL takn-āz earth.N-ABL

Cf. Hoffner & Melchert 2008: §471, p. 110.

r/n-Stem[edit]
Traditional Advanced Expert
uttar uttar word.NOM/ACC.SG.N uttar word.NOM/ACC.SG.N
uddananza uddananza word.N:ANIM:NOM.SG.C uddan-an-za word.N-ANIM-NOM.SG.C
uddanaš uddanaš word.N:GEN.SG uddan-aš word.N-GEN.SG
uddani uddani word.N:DATLOC.SG uddan-i word.N-DATLOC.SG
uddanaz uddanaz word.N:ABL uddan-az word.N-ABL
uddanit uddanit word.N:INS uddan-it word.N-INS
uttār uttār word.NOM/ACC.SG.N uttār word.NOM/ACC.PL.N
uttanānteš uttanānteš word.N:ANIM:NOM.PL.C uttan-ānt-eš word.N-ANIM-NOM.PL.C
uddanaš uddanaš word.N:GEN.PL uddan-aš word.N-GEN.PL
uddanāš uddanāš word.N:DATLOC.PL uddan-āš word.N-DATLOC.PL

Cf. Hoffner & Melchert 2008: §4.101, pp. 124f.

nt-Stem Adjective[edit]
Traditional Advanced Expert
ḫūmanza ḫūmanza all:NOM.SG.C ḫūman-za all-NOM.SG.C
ḫūmandan ḫūmandan all:ACC.SG.C ḫūmand-an all-ACC.SG.C
ḫūman ḫūman all.NOM/ACC.SG.N ḫūman all.NOM/ACC.SG.N
ḫūmandaš ḫūmandaš all:GEN.SG ḫūmand-aš all-GEN.SG
ḫūmanti ḫūmanti all:DATLOC.SG ḫūmant-i all-DATLOC.SG
ḫūmandaz ḫūmandaz all:ABL ḫūmand-az all-ABL
ḫūmantit ḫūmantit all:INS ḫūmant-it all-INS
ḫūmanteš ḫūmanteš all:NOM.PL.C ḫūmant-eš all-NOM.PL.C
ḫūmanduš ḫūmanduš all:ACC.PL.C ḫūmand-uš all-ACC.PL.C
ḫūmanta ḫūmanta all:NOM/ACC.PL.N ḫūmant-a all-NOM/ACC.PL.N
ḫūmandaš ḫūmandaš all:GEN.PL ḫūmand-aš all-GEN.PL
ḫūmandaš ḫūmandaš all:DATLOC.PL ḫūmand-aš all-DATLOC.PL

Cf. Hoffner & Melchert 2008: §4.98, p. 123.

Verbs[edit]

Finite Forms[edit]

mi-Verbs Present Indicative Active[edit]
Traditional Advanced Expert
walḫmi walḫmi strike:1SG.PRS.IND.ACT walḫ-mi strike-1SG.PRS.IND.ACT
walḫši walḫši strike:2SG.PRS.IND.ACT walḫ-ši strike-2SG.PRS.IND.ACT
walḫzi walḫzi strike:3SG.PRS.IND.ACT walḫ-zi strike-3SG.PRS.IND.ACT
walḫueni walḫueni strike:1PL.PRS.IND.ACT walḫ-ueni strike-1PL.PRS.IND.ACT
walḫteni walḫteni strike:2PL.PRS.IND.ACT walḫ-teni strike-2PL.PRS.IND.ACT
walḫanzi walḫanzi strike:3PL.PRS.IND.ACT walḫ-anzi strike-3PL.PRS.IND.ACT

Cf. Hoffner & Melchert 2008: §12.8, pp. 191f.

mi-Verbs Preterite Indicative Active[edit]
Traditional Advanced Expert
walḫun walḫun strike:1SG.PRT.IND.ACT walḫ-un strike-1SG.PRT.IND.ACT
walḫta walḫta strike:2SG.PRT.IND.ACT walḫ-ta strike-2SG.PRT.IND.ACT
walḫta walḫta strike:3SG.PRT.IND.ACT walḫ-ta strike-3SG.PRT.IND.ACT
walḫuen walḫuen strike:1PL.PRT.IND.ACT walḫ-uen strike-1PL.PRT.IND.ACT
walḫten walḫten strike:2PL.PRT.IND.ACT walḫ-ten strike-2PL.PRT.IND.ACT
walḫer walḫer strike:3PL.PRT.IND.ACT walḫ-er strike-3PL.PRT.IND.ACT

Cf. Hoffner & Melchert 2008: §12.8, p. 192.

mi-Verbs Imperative Active[edit]

The gloss IMP ‘imperative’ for forms of the first person follows Hittitological convention. One may also gloss these first person forms according to their function in the sentence as voluntative (VOL), cf. Hoffner & Melchert 2008: §23.4, p. 313.

Traditional Advanced Expert
ašallu ašallu be:1SG.IMP.ACT aš-allu be:1SG.IMP.ACT
ēš ēš be:2SG.IMP.ACT ēš be.2SG.IMP.ACT
ēšdu ēšdu be:3SG.IMP.ACT ēš-du be:3SG.IMP.ACT
ēšten ēšten be:2PL.IMP.ACT ēš-ten be:2PL.IMP.ACT
ašandu ašandu be:3PL.IMP.ACT aš-andu be:3PL.IMP.ACT

Cf. Hoffner & Melchert 2008: §12.3. p. 189 and Kloekhorst 2008: 250.

ḫi-Verbs Present Indicative Active[edit]
Traditional Advanced Expert
šākḫi šākḫi know:1SG.PRS.IND.ACT šāk-ḫi know-1SG.PRS.IND.ACT
šakti šakti know:2SG.PRS.IND.ACT šak-ti know-2SG.PRS.IND.ACT
šakki šakki know:3SG.PRS.IND.ACT šakk-i know-3SG.PRS.IND.ACT
šekkueni šekkueni know:1PL.PRS.IND.ACT šekk-ueni know-1PL.PRS.IND.ACT
šakteni šakteni know:2PL.PRS.IND.ACT šak-teni know-2PL.PRS.IND.ACT
šakanzi šakanzi know:3PL.PRS.IND.ACT šak-anzi know:3PL.PRS.IND.ACT

Cf. Hoffner & Melchert 2008: §13.1, p. 214.

ḫi-Verbs Preterite Indicative Active[edit]
Traditional Advanced Expert
šaggaḫḫun šaggaḫḫun know:1SG.PRT.IND.ACT šagg-aḫḫun know-1SG.PRT.IND.ACT
šākta šākta know:2SG.PRT.IND.ACT šāk-ta know-2SG.PRT.IND.ACT
šakkiš šakkiš know:3SG.PRT.IND.ACT šakki-š know-3SG.PRT.IND.ACT
šekkuen šekkuen know:1PL.PRT.IND.ACT šekk-uen know-1PL.PRT.IND.ACT
ākten ākten die:2PL.PRT.IND.ACT āk-ten die-2PL.PRT.IND.ACT
šekker šekker know:3PL.PRT.IND.ACT šekk-er know-3PL.PRT.IND.ACT

Cf. Hoffner & Melchert 2008: §13.1, p. 215.

ḫi-Verbs Imperative Active[edit]
Traditional Advanced Expert
šeggallu šeggallu know:1SG.IMP.ACT šegg-allu know-1SG.IMP.ACT
šāk šāk know.2SG.IMP.ACT šāk know-2SG.IMP.ACT
šakdu šakdu know:3SG.IMP.ACT šak-du know-3SG.IMP.ACT
šekten šekten know:2PL.IMP.ACT šek-ten know-2PL.IMP.ACT
šekkandu šekkandu know:3PL.IMP.ACT šekk-andu know-3PL.IMP.ACT

Cf. Hoffner & Melchert 2008: §13.1, p. 216.

Present Indicative Medio-Passive[edit]
Traditional Advanced Expert
paḫḫašḫa paḫḫašḫa protect:1SG.PRS.IND.MEDP paḫḫaš-ḫa protect-1SG.PRS.IND.MEDP
paḫḫašta paḫḫašta protect:2SG.PRS.IND.MEDP paḫḫaš-ta protect-2SG.PRS.IND.MEDP
paḫḫšari paḫḫšari protect:3SG.PRS.IND.MEDP paḫš-ari protect-3SG.PRS.IND.MEDP
paḫšuwašta paḫšuwašta protect:1PL.PRS.IND.MEDP paḫš-uwašta protect-1PL.PRS.IND.MEDP
paḫḫašduma paḫḫašduma protect:2PL.PRS.IND.MEDP paḫḫaš-duma protect-2PL.PRS.IND.MEDP
paḫḫaššantari paḫḫaššantari protect:3PL.PRS.IND.MEDP paḫḫašš-antari protect-3PL.PRS.IND.MEDP

Cf. Hoffner & Melchert 2008: §14.2, p. 230.

Preterite Indicative Medio-Passive[edit]
Traditional Advanced Expert
arḫati arḫati stand:1SG.PRT.IND.MEDP ar-ḫati stand-1SG.PRT.IND.MEDP
artati artati stand:2SG.PRT.IND.MEDP ar-tati stand-2SG.PRT.IND.MEDP
artat artat stand:3SG.PRT.IND.MEDP ar-tat stand-3SG.PRT.IND.MEDP
arwaštat arwaštat stand:1PL.PRT.IND.MEDP ar-waštat stand-1PL.PRT.IND.MEDP
kišdummat kišdummat become:2PL.PRT.IND.MEDP kiš-dummat become-2PL.PRT.IND.MEDP
arantat arantat stand:3PL.PRT.IND.MEDP ar-antat stand-3PL.PRT.IND.MEDP

Cf. Hoffner & Melchert 2008: §14.2, p. 231.

Imperative Medio-Passive[edit]
Traditional Advanced Expert
arḫaḫaru arḫaḫaru stand:1SG.IMP.MEDP ar-ḫaḫaru stand-1SG.IMP.MEDP
arḫut arḫut stand:2SG.IMP.MEDP ar-ḫut stand-2SG.IMP.MEDP
artaru artaru stand:3SG.IMP.MEDP ar-taru stand-3SG.IMP.MEDP
ardumat ardumat stand:2PL.IMP.MEDP ar-dumat stand-2PL.IMP.MEDP
arantaru arantaru stand:3PL.IMP.MEDP ar-antaru stand-3PL.IMP.MEDP

Cf. Hoffner & Melchert 2008: §14.2, p. 231.

Imperfective -ške- [edit]
Traditional Advanced Expert
memiškimi memiškimi speak:IPFV:1SG.PRS.IND.ACT memi-ški-mi speak-IPFV-1SG.PRS.IND.ACT
memiškiši memiškiši speak:IPFV:2SG.PRS.IND.ACT memi-ški-ši speak-IPFV-2SG.PRS.IND.ACT
memiškizzi memiškizzi speak:IPFV:3SG.PRS.IND.ACT memi-ški-zzi speak-IPFV-3SG.PRS.IND.ACT
memiškiuwani memiškiuwani speak:IPFV:1PL.PRS.IND.ACT memi-ški-uwani speak-IPFV-1PL.PRS.IND.ACT
memiškiteni memiškiteni speak:IPFV:2PL.PRS.IND.ACT memi-ški-teni speak-IPFV-2PL.PRS.IND.ACT
memiškanzi memiškanzi speak:IPFV:3PL.PRS.IND.ACT memi-šk-anzi speak-IPFV-3PL.PRS.IND.ACT
memiškinun memiškinun speak:IPFV:1SG.PRT.IND.ACT memi-ški-nun speak-IPFV-1SG.PRT.IND.ACT
memiškeš memiškeš speak:IPFV:2SG.PRT.IND.ACT memi-ške-š speak-IPFV-2SG.PRT.IND.ACT
memiškit memiškit speak:IPFV:3SG.PRT.IND.ACT memi-ški-t speak-IPFV-3SG.PRT.IND.ACT
akkuškewani akkuškewani die:IPFV:1PL.PRT.IND.ACT akku-ške-wani die-IPFV-1PL.PRT.IND.ACT
memeškatten memeškatten speak:IPFV:2PL.PRT.IND.ACT meme-ška-tten speak-IPFV-2PL.PRT.IND.ACT
memiškir memiškir speak:IPFV:3PL.PRT.IND.ACT memi-šk-ir speak-IPFV-3PL.PRT.IND.ACT
memiški memiški speak:IPFV.2SG.IMP.ACT memi-ški speak-IPFV.2SG.IMP.ACT
memiškiddu memiškiddu speak:IPFV:3SG.IMP.ACT memi-ški-ddu speak-IPFV-3SG.IMP.ACT
memiškitten memiškitten speak:IPFV:2PL.IMP.ACT memi-ški-tten speak-IPFV-2PL.IMP.ACT
memiškandu memiškandu speak:IPFV:3PL.IMP.ACT memi-šk-andu speak-IPFV-3PL.IMP.ACT

Cf. CHD L-M: p. 255 and Hoffner & Melchert 2008: §12.33, p. 205.

Non-Finite Forms[edit]

Traditional Advanced Expert
eppuwanzi eppuwanzi take:INF1 epp-uwanzi take-INF1
appanna appanna take:INF2 app-anna take-INF2
walḫuwanzi walḫuwanzi strike:INF1 walḫ-uwanzi strike-INF1
walḫuwan walḫuwan strike:SUP walḫ-uwan strike-SUP
memiškiuwan memiškiuwan speak:IPFV:SUP memi-ški-uwan speak-IPFV-SUP
Participle[edit]

The participle is formed by suffixing the morpheme -ant to the stem of the verb and a case ending. The participle is conjugated according to the paradigm of nt-stem adjectives, for which see #nt-Stem Adjective above. The morpheme -ant is glossed here as PTCP ‘participle’ since it is the morpheme that turns the verb into a participle. It should be noted, however, that this -ant is the same morpheme as is used to “animatize” a neuter noun in order enable it to function as the subject of a transitive verb, see #Neuter i-Stem Nouns above. In those so-called ergative forms the morpheme is glossed as ANIM “animatized” and one may consider to use the same gloss in participle forms.

Traditional Advanced Expert
walḫanza walḫanza strike:PTCP:NOM.SG.C walḫ-an-za strike-PTCP-NOM.SG.C
walḫantan walḫantan strike:PTCP:ACC.SG.C walḫ-ant-an strike-PTCP-ACC.SG.C
walḫan walḫan strike:PTCP.NOM/ACC.SG.N walḫ-an strike-PTCP.NOM/ACC.SG.N
walḫantaš walḫantaš strike:PTCP:GEN.SG walḫ-ant-aš strike-PTCP-GEN.SG
walḫanti walḫanti strike:PTCP:DATLOC.SG walḫ-ant-i strike-PTCP-DATLOC.SG
walḫantaz walḫantaz strike:PTCP:ABL walḫ-ant-az strike-PTCP-ABL
walḫanteš walḫanteš strike:PTCP:NOM.PL.C walḫ-ant-eš strike-PTCP-NOM.PL.C
walḫantuš walḫantuš strike:PTCP:ACC.PL.C walḫ-ant-uš strike-PTCP-ACC.PL.C
walḫanta walḫanta strike:PTCP:NOM/ACC.PL.N walḫ-ant-a strike-PTCP-NOM/ACC.PL.N
walḫantaš walḫantaš strike:PTCP:DATLOC.PL walḫ-ant-aš strike-PTCP-DATLOC.PL

Negations, Particles and Conjuctions[edit]

Traditional Advanced Expert
natta natta NEG natta NEG
nawi nawi not_yet.NEG nawi not_yet.NEG
NEG.PROH NEG.PROH
lē=man lē=man NEG=OPT.PTCL lē=man NEG=OPT.PTCL
nūman nūman NEG.OPT nūman NEG.OPT
nekku nekku NEG.Q nekku NEG.Q
=wa(r)= =war= =QUOT= =war= =QUOT=
=z(a) =za =REFL =za =REFL
=an =an =PTCL =an =PTCL
=apa =apa =PTCL =apa =PTCL
=ašta =ašta =PTCL =ašta =PTCL
=kan =kan =PTCL =kan =PTCL
=šan =šan =PTCL =šan =PTCL
=pat =pat =PTCL =pat =PTCL
man man OPT.PTCL man OPT.PTCL
man man POT.PTCL man POT.PTCL
man man IRR.PTCL man IRR.PTCL
nu nu CNJ nu CNJ
šu šu CNJ šu CNJ
ta ta CNJ ta CNJ
=a =a =CNJ =a =CNJ
=ma =ma =CNJ =ma =CNJ
=ya =ya =CNJ =ya =CNJ

Cf. Hoffner & Melchert 2008 Chapters 26, 28 and 29.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Hoffner, H.A. and H.C. Melchert. 2008. A Grammar of the Hittite Language, Part 1: Reference Grammar, Languages of the Ancient Near East 1, Winona Lake, Indiana.
  • Kloekhorst, A. 2008. Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon, Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series 5, Leiden/Boston.
  • CHD = H.G. Güterbock, H.A. Hoffner, et al. (eds.). 1980–... The Hittite Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, Chicago.