Glossing Abbreviations

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Kernel abbreviations[edit]

Abbreviation Meaning References
1 first person LGR (2008)
2 second person LGR (2008)
3 third person LGR (2008)
A agent-like argument of a
canonical transitive verb
Lehmann (2004: 1844, Tab. 169.3): “to be avoided”; LGR (2008)
ABL ablative LGR (2008)
ABS absolutive LGR (2008)
ABSTR abstract Lehmann (2004: Tab. 169.4); Di Biase-Dyson et al. (2009: 350)
ACC accusative LGR (2008)
ACT active Lehmann (2004: Tab. 169.4); Di Biase-Dyson et al. (2009: 350)
ADJ adjective LGR (2008)
ADJZ adjectivizer, adjectivization Lehmann (2004: Tab. 169.4): ADJR; Shopen (2007: xvii): ADJ; Di Biase-Dyson et al. (2009: 350)
ADV adverb, adverbial Lehmann (2004: 1844, Tab. 169.3): “to be avoided”; LGR (2008)
ADVZ adverbializer, adverbialization Lehmann (2004: Tab. 169.4): ADVR; Di Biase-Dyson et al. (2009: 350)
AGR agreement Lehmann (2004: 1844, Tab. 169.3): “to be avoided”; LGR (2008)
AGT agent marker Lehmann (2004: 1844, Tab. 169.3): “to be avoided”; Di Biase-Dyson et al. (2009: 350)
ALL allative LGR (2008)
ANIM animate
ANT anterior Lehmann (2004: Tab. 169.4); Binnick (2001: 559); Bybee et al. (1994: xxi, 54, 61, 78); Shopen (2007: xviii); Werning (2008)
ANTIP antipassive LGR (2008)
AOR aorist Lehmann (2004: Tab. 169.4)
APPL applicative LGR (2008)
ART article Lehmann (2004: 1844, Tab. 169.3): “to be avoided”; LGR (2008)
ASP aspect (grammatical) Lehmann (2004: 1844, Tab. 169.3): “to be avoided”
ATT attachment, attached Werning (2012): ATTACHED; Kutscher & Werning (forthc.: xxvi): ATTD
ATTN attention marker Lehmann (2004: Tab. 169.4): ATTEN[tuative]; Di Biase-Dyson et al. (2009: 350)
AUX auxiliary Lehmann (2004: 1844, Tab. 169.3): “to be avoided”; LGR (2008)
BEN benefactive LGR (2008)
BS base Di Biase-Dyson et al. (2009: 350)
C communis (common gender) Lehmann (2004: Tab. 169.4): COMM
CAUS causative LGR (2008)
CJVB conjunctional verb Di Biase-Dyson et al. (2009: 350)
CIRC circumstantial Lehmann (2004: Tab. 169.4)
CIRCF circumference Di Biase-Dyson et al. (2009: 350): CIRC
CLF classifier Lehmann (2004: 1844, Tab. 169.3): “to be avoided”; LGR (2008)
CNSV consecutive Lehmann (2004: Tab. 169.4): CONSEC; Di Biase-Dyson et al. (2009: 350)
CNJ conjunction Bybee et al. (1994: xxi)
COLL collective Lehmann (2004: Tab. 169.4); Di Biase-Dyson et al. (2009: 350)
COM comitative LGR (2008)
COMP complementizer LGR (2008)
COMPL completive LGR (2008); Bybee et al. (1994: xxi, 57): COMP; compare also: Boland (2006: 48)
COND conditional LGR (2008)
COP copula LGR (2008)
CORD coordinating particle Di Biase-Dyson et al. (2009: 350)
CVB converb LGR (2008)
DAT dative LGR (2008)
DECL declarative LGR (2008)
DEF definite LGR (2008)
DEM demonstrative LGR (2008)
DET determiner LGR (2008)
DIST distal LGR (2008)
DISTR distributive LGR (2008)
DO direct object Lehmann (2004: Tab. 169.4); Shopen (2007: xviii)
DIVN divine name
DU dual LGR (2008)
DUR durative LGR (2008)
E epenthetic morpheme
ERG ergative LGR (2008)
ELAT elative Lehmann (2004: Tab. 169.4)
EXCL exclusive LGR (2008)
EXLM exclamative Lehmann (2004: Tab. 169.4): EXCL; Di Biase-Dyson et al. (2009: 350)
EXTR exterior Kutscher & Werning (forthc.: xxvi)
F feminine LGR (2008)
FOC focus LGR (2008)
FOCZ focalizer, focalization Di Biase-Dyson et al. (2009: 350)
FUT future LGR (2008)
GEN genitive LGR (2008)
GODN god or godess‘s name Kutscher & Werning (forthc.: xxvi): GN; cf. DIVN
GRND ground Shopen (2007: xix): G; Di Biase-Dyson et al. (2009: 350)
HABIT habitual Lehmann (2004: Tab. 169.4)
ILL illative Lehmann (2004: Tab. 169.4)
IMP imperative LGR (2008)
IMPRS impersonal Bybee et al. (1994: xxi); Lehmann (2004: Tab. 169.4): IMPR, IPS; Shopen (2007: xix): IMP
INANIM inanimate
INESS inessive Lehmann (2004: Tab. 169.4)
INCL inclusive LGR (2008)
INCHO inchoative Bybee et al. (1994: xxi); Lehmann (2004: Tab. 169.4): INCH
IND indicative LGR (2008)
INDF indefinite LGR (2008)
INF infinitive LGR (2008)
INFR inferior Kutscher & Werning (forthc.: xxvi)
INS instrumental LGR (2008)
INT interior
INTR intransitive LGR (2008)
IO indirect object Lehmann (2004: Tab. 169.4)
IPFV imperfective LGR (2008); Comrie (1976: 25, 39); compare also: Werning (2008: 275); Bybee et al. (1994: xxi): IMPF; Kloekhorst (2008: xi): IMPF
IPRF imperfect Lehmann (2004: Tab. 169.4): IMPF; Kutscher & Werning (forthc.: xxvi)
IRR irrealis LGR (2008)
LOC locative LGR (2008)
M masculine LGR (2008)
MEDP mediopassive Lehmann (2004: Tab. 169.4); Kutscher & Werning (forthc.: xxvi): MP, MED
MELL mellic
MCM main clause marker Di Biase-Dyson et al. (2009: 350)
MOD modal, mode Bybee et al. (1994: xxii)
MODP modal particle Di Biase-Dyson et al. (2009: 350)
N neuter LGR (2008)
N... non- (e.g. NPST non-past) LGR (2008); cf. below
NAM name
NEG negation, negative LGR (2008)
NMLZ nominalizer, nominalization LGR (2008); Shopen (2007: xx): NOMIN
NOM nominative LGR (2008)
OBJ object LGR (2008)
OBL oblique LGR (2008)
OBLG obligative Bybee et al. (1994: xxii): OBL[igation]; Lehmann (2004: Tab. 169.4); Di Biase-Dyson et al. (2009: 350): OBLV
OPT optative
ORD ordinal number Lehmann (2004: Tab. 169.4)
P patient-like argument of a
canonical transitive verb
Lehmann (2004: 1844, Tab. 169.3): PAT “to be avoided”; LGR (2008)
PASS passive LGR (2008)
PFV perfective LGR (2008); Bybee et al. (1994: 54-55, 83): PERF; Dahl (1985: 78); Timberlake (2007: 304)
PL plural LGR (2008)
PLUPRF pluperfect Lehmann (2004: Tab. 169.4): PLUP; Kutscher & Werning (forthc.: xxvi)
PN personal name Kutscher & Werning (forthc.: xxvi)
POST posterior (relative tense) Binnick (2001: 559); Werning (2008)
POSS possessive LGR (2008)
POSSED possessed
POSSOR possessor
POT potential Bybee et al. (1994: xxi); Lehmann (2004: Tab. 169.4); Shopen (2007: xxi)
PREC precative
PRED predicative LGR (2008)
PREP preposition Bybee et al. (1994: xxii), Lehmann (2004: 1844, Tab. 169.3): “to be avoided”
PRF perfect LGR (2008); Timberlake (2007: 304): PF
PROG progressive LGR (2008)
PROH prohibitive LGR (2008)
PROSP prospective Lehmann (2004: Tab. 169.4); Di Biase-Dyson et al. (2009: 350): PROS
PROX proximal, proximate LGR (2008)
PRS present LGR (2008); Bybee et al. (1994: xxi): PRES
PRT preterit better use PST (Lehmann 2004: Tab. 169.4)
PST past, preterit LGR (2008); Bybee et al. (1994: 55, 82); Dahl (1985: 116-117): PAST; Timberlake (2007: 315)
PTCP participle LGR (2008)
PTCL particle Lehmann (2004: 1844, Tab. 169.3): PTL “to be avoided”; Shopen (2007: xx): PART, PCL; Di Biase-Dyson et al. (2009: 351)
PURP purposive LGR (2008)
Q question particle/marker LGR (2008)
QUOT quotative LGR (2008)
RECP reciprocal LGR (2008)
REFL reflexive LGR (2008)
REL relative LGR (2008)
RES resultative LGR (2008)
S single argument of a
canonical intransitive verb
LGR (2008)
SBJ subject LGR (2008)
SBJV subjunctive LGR (2008)
SBRD subordinating particle Lehmann (2004: Tab. 169.4): S[ubo]R[rdinator]; Shopen (2007: xxi): SUBORD; Di Biase-Dyson et al. (2009: 351)
SIM simultaneous (relative tense) Lehmann (2004: Tab. 169.4); Shopen (2007: xxi))
SP sentence particle Bybee et al. (1994: xxii)
SG singular LGR (2008)
STABS status absolutus Schenkel (2005: 109/110, ch. 5.1.1.4); Di Biase-Dyson et al. (2009: 351)
STAT stative Nedjalkov (2001: 928); Bybee et al. (1994: xxii); Shopen (2007: xxi): STV
STC status constructus Schenkel (2005: 109/110); Di Biase-Dyson et al. (2009: 351)
STN status nominalis better use STC
STPR status pronominalis Schenkel (2005: 109/110)
SUP supine Hoffner & Melchert (2008: xix); Kloekhorst (2008: xii)
SUPR superior Lehmann (2004: Tab. 169.4): SUP[er]ESS[ive]; Kutscher & Werning (forthc.: xxvii)
TERM terminative Lehmann (2004: Tab. 169.4)
THMZ thematizer, thematization Di Biase-Dyson et al. (2009: 351)
TNS tense Lehmann (2004: 1844, Tab. 169.3): “to be avoided”
TOP topic LGR (2008)
TOPN toponym Kutscher & Werning (forthc.: xxvi): TN
TOPZ topicalizer, topicalization Di Biase-Dyson et al. (2009: 351)
TR transitive LGR (2008)
VET vetitive
VOC vocative LGR (2008)

Language specific abbreviations[edit]

Akkadian[edit]

Abbreviation Meaning References
G G-Stem
GT Gt-Stem
GTN Gtn-Stem
D D-Stem
DT Dt-Stem
DTN Dtn-Stem
N N-Stem
NA animate noun
NI inanimate noun
NTN Ntn-Stem
Š Š-Stem
ŠT Št-Stem
VENT Ventive

Hittite[edit]

Abbreviation Meaning References
ANIM animitizing (suffix) (trad. “ergative”)
INFI infinitive I
INFII infinitve II

Abbreviations of combinations of kernel abbreviations[edit]

Abbreviation Equivalent References
1SG; 1PL; 1DU
2SG; 2PL; 2DU
3SG; 3PL; 3DU
1.SG; 1.PL; 1.DU
2.SG; 2.PL; 2.DU
3.SG; 3.PL; 3.DU
LGR (2008: rule 5)
DATLOC DAT/LOC e.g. in Hittite (Kutscher & Werning forthc.: xxvii)
N... NON. LGR (2008: abbreviations), e.g. NPST = NON.PST
PA PTCP.ACT e.g. in Egyptian; Di Biase-Dyson et al. (2009: 351)
PDA PTCP.DISTR.ACT e.g. in Egyptian; Di Biase-Dyson et al. (2009: 351)
PDP PTCP.DISTR.PASS e.g. in Egyptian; Di Biase-Dyson et al. (2009: 351)
PF PTCP.FUT e.g. in Egyptian; Di Biase-Dyson et al. (2009: 351)
PIA PTCP.IPFV.ACT e.g. in Egyptian; Di Biase-Dyson et al. (2009: 351)
PIP PTCP.IPFV.PASS e.g. in Egyptian; Di Biase-Dyson et al. (2009: 351)
PP PTCP.PASS e.g. in Egyptian; Di Biase-Dyson et al. (2009: 351)
PPO PTCP.POST e.g. in Egyptian; Di Biase-Dyson et al. (2009: 351)
TA TNS.ASP Kutscher & Werning (forthc.: xxvii)
TAM TNS.ASP.MOD Kutscher & Werning (forthc.: xxvii)


Bibliography[edit]

  • Binnick, Robert I. (2001). Temporality and Aspectuality. In: Haspelmath et al. (2001): 557-567.
  • Bybee, Joan L., Revere Perkins & William Pagliuca (1994). The Evolution of Grammar. Tense, Aspect, and Modality in the Languages of the World, Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press.
  • Comrie, Bernard (1976). Aspect. An Introduction to the Study of Verbal Aspect and Related Problems, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Dahl, Östen (1985). Tense and Aspect Systems, Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
  • Di Biase Dyson, Camilla, Frank Kammerzell & Daniel A. Werning (2009). Glossing Ancient Egyptian. Suggestions for Adapting the Leipzig Glossing Rules. In: Lingua Aegyptia. Journal of Egyptian Language Studies 17: 243–266.
  • Haspelmath, Martin et al. (eds.) (2001). Language Typology and Language Universals. An International Handbook, Handbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft 20, 2 vols., Berlin & New York: Walter de Gruyter.
  • Hoffner, H.A. & H.C. Melchert. (2008). A Grammar of the Hittite Language, Part 1: Reference Grammar, Languages of the Ancient Near East 1, Winona Lake, Indiana.
  • Klein, Wolfgang (1994). Time in Language, London & New York: Routledge.
  • Kloekhorst, A. (2008). Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon, Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series 5, Leiden/Boston.
  • Kutscher, Silvia & Daniel A. Werning (eds.) (2014). On Ancient Grammars of Space: Linguistic Research on the Expression of Spatial Relations and Motion in Ancient Languages, Topoi. Berlin Studies of the Ancient World, Berlin: de Gruyter, ISBN 978-3110311358.
  • Lehmann, Christian (2004). Interlinear morphemic glossing, in: Morphology. An International Handbook on Inflection and Word-Formation, ed. by Geert E. Booij, Christian Lehmann, Joachim Mugdan & Stavros Skopeteas in cooperation with Wolfgang Kesselheim, Handbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft (HSK) 17/2, Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1834-1857. (online manuscript: http://www.folialinguistica.com/documents/Interlinearmorphemicglossing.pdf)
  • LGR (2008) = The Leipzig Glossing Rules: Conventions for Interlinear Morpheme-by-Morpheme Glosses, ed. by the Department of Linguistics of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology (Bernard Comrie, Martin Haspelmath) and by the Department of Linguistics of the University of Leipzig (Balthasar Bickel), http://www.eva.mpg.de/lingua/resources/glossing-rules.php, Leipzig, 12. Sept. 2008.
  • Nedjalkov, Vladimir P. (2001). Resultative Constructions. In: Haspelmath et al. (2001): 928-941.
  • Schenkel, Wolfgang (2005). Tübinger Einführung in die klassisch-ägyptische Sprache und Schrift, [6th rev. ed.], Tübingen: [W.Sch.].
  • Shopen, Timothy (ed.) (2007). Language Typology and Syntactic Description, Vol. 3., 2nd [rev.] ed., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Timberlake, Alan (2007). Aspect, Tense, Mood. In: Shopen (2007), 280-333.
  • Werning, Daniel A. (2008). Aspect vs. Relative Tense, and the Typological Classification of the Ancient Egyptian sḏm.n=f. In: Lingua Aegyptia. Journal of Egyptian Language Studies 16, 261-292.