Akkadian:Glossing recommendations

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Examples for common forms[edit]

For examples of glossings of common Akkadian forms, see here.


Extra Glossing transcription line[edit]

Traditional scholarly transliteration as well as bound transcription of Akkadian Cuneiform uses punctuation, too. This punctuation is in conflict with the punctuation as defined by the Glossing Rules.

Compare the following table:

Puctuation Meaning in scholarly
transliterations of Akkadian
Meaning in scholarly
bound transcription of Akkadian
Meaning in
Glossing transcription line
Meaning in
Glossing line
. Separates sumerograms Portmanteau morpheme
- Seperates phonograms Clitic Affix
= Clitic
( ) Non-overt phonemes,
scholarly reconstruction
Inherent category
[ ] Completely destroyed text (lacuna),
potentially with reconstructed content
‘Zero’ morpheme
⌈ ⌉ Partially destroyed text,
usually with reconstructed content
{ } Emendation of a scribal error (deletion)
< > Emendation of a scribal error (addition) Infix
~ Reduplication morpheme
\ Transfix
_ Fixed phrase Fixed phrase
\ Ablaut phenomenon
/ (Options) Ambigous morpheme

In order to prevent any confusion, it is strongly advisable or, as far as “-” and “< >” are concerned, even mandatory not to use these symbols in their traditional meaning in the Glossing transcription line (directly above the Glossing line). Keep in mind that the number and sequence of “-”, “=”, “~”, and “< >” in the Glossing transcription and the gloss needs to match exactly.

Problematic examples
Transliteration LÚ.ENGARMEŠ ù LÚ.MEŠ[]-ki-ri ša ÍD.DA aṭ-ru-<dam>-ma
Glosses field_worker(M)-ACC.PL and block\PTCP-ACC.PL of canal(M)-M.GEN 1SG-send\PRT-VENT-SP
‘[...], I sent field workers and canal sealers (before).’.
 
Bound transcription ikkar(ī) u []kirī ša nār(im) aṭru<dam>-ma
Glosses field_worker(M)-ACC.PL and block\PTCP-ACC.PL of canal(M)-M.GEN 1SG-send\PRT-VENT=SP
‘[...], I sent field workers and canal sealers (before).’.
 

Consequently, the encoder needs to add an extra ‘Glossing transcription line’ between the traditional Transliteration line (or traditional Bound transcription line) and the Glossing line.

Examples
Transliteration LÚ.ENGARMEŠ ù LÚ.MEŠ[sé]-ki-ri ša ÍD.DA aṭ-ru-<dam>-ma
Glossing transcription ikkar-ī u sēkir-ī ša nār-im a-ṭrud-am=ma
Glosses field_worker(M)-ACC.PL and block\PTCP-ACC.PL of canal(M)-M.GEN 1SG-send\PRT-VENT=SP
‘[...], I sent field workers and canal sealers (before).’.
 
Bound transcription ikkar(ī) u [sē]kirī ša nār(im) aṭru<dam>-ma
Glossing transcription ikkar-ī u sēkir-ī ša nār-im a-ṭrud-am=ma
Glosses field_worker(M)-ACC.PL and block\PTCP-ACC.PL of canal(M)-M.GEN 1SG-send\PRT-VENT=SP
‘[...], I sent field workers and canal sealers (before).’.
 


In the Glossing transcription line, all symbols need to be used according to the Glossing Rules. In the Traditional transliteration line, however, the encoder may use all the symbols according to his/her scholarly tradition.


Hands-on transcription transformation guidelines[edit]

To derive a valid Glossing transcription line from a traditional transliteration or transcription line, the following hand-on rules may help.

Compare the following table:

Traditional
transliteration
line
Traditional
transcription
line
Glossing
transliteration line
Examples
. make bound transcription ÍD.DA → nārim canal:M.GEN ‘(of the) canal’
ÍD.DA → nār-im canal(M)-M.GEN ‘(of the) canal’
keep it (if bound transcription impossible) ÍD.DA → ÍD.DA canal:M.GEN ‘(of the) canal’
- make bound transcription aṭ-ru-dam → aṭrudam 1SG:send:PRT:VENT ‘I sent’
aṭ-ru-dam → a-ṭrud-am 1SG-send\PRT-VENT ‘I sent’
- “=” (clitic) aṭrudam-ma → aṭrudam=ma 1SG:send:PRT:VENT=SP ‘I sent’
aṭrudam-ma → a-ṭrud-am=ma 1SG-send\PRT-VENT=SP ‘I sent’
( ) leave parentheses out;
keep content
nār(im) → nārim canal:M.GEN ‘(of the) canal’
nār(im) → nār-im canal(M)-M.GEN ‘(of the) canal’
< > leave brackets out;
keep content
LÚ.MEŠ<sē>kirī → sēkirī block:PTCP:ACC.PL ‘blockers’
LÚ.MEŠ<sē>kirī → sēkir-ī block\PTCP-ACC.PL ‘blockers’
{ } leave brackets and content out LÚ.MEŠsē{sē}kirī → sēkirī block:PTCP:ACC.PL ‘blockers’
LÚ.MEŠsē{sē}kirī → sēkir-ī block\PTCP-ACC.PL ‘blockers’
[ ] leave brackets out;
keep content or leave it out
LÚ.MEŠ[sēki]rī → sēkirī block:PTCP:ACC.PL ‘blockers’
LÚ.MEŠ[sēki]rī → sēkir-ī block\PTCP-ACC.PL ‘blockers’
LÚ.MEŠ[sēki]rī → [__]rī ‘[destroyed]’
⌈ ⌉ leave brackets out;
keep content
LÚ.MEŠ⌈sē⌉kirī → sēkirī block:PTCP:ACC.PL ‘blockers’
LÚ.MEŠ⌈sē⌉kirī → sēkir-ī block\PTCP-ACC.PL ‘blockers’