Statistical Element and Population

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Objectives of Statistics  • Statistical Investigation  • Statistical Element and Population  • Statistical Variable  • Measurement Scales  • Qualitative Variables  • Quantitative Variables  • Grouping Continuous Data  • Statistical Sequences and Frequencies  • Multiple Choice Questions

Statistical Elements

Objects whose attributes are observed or measured for statistical purposes are called elements. In order to identify all elements relevant to a particular investigation, one must specify their defining characteristics as well as temporal and spatial dimensions. Example: Population Census in Germany

  • defining characteristic: citizen of Germany
  • spatial: permanent address in Federal Republic of Germany
  • temporal: date of census


The universe of statistical elements covered by a particular set of specifications is called population. In general, increasing the number of criteria to be matched by the elements will result in a smaller and more homogeneous population.

In a census all elements of the population are investigated. Recording information from a portion of the population yields a sample survey. Populations can be finite or infinite in size.

The stock of elements constituting a population may change over time, as some elements leave and others enter the population. This sensitivity of populations to time flow has to be taken into account when carrying out statistical investigations.

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We use the following questionnaire, developed at the Department of Statistics, to clarify the notions of statistical unit and population. This questionnaire was filled out by all participants in Statistics 1. The investigation was carried out on the first lecture of the summer semester in 1999. Population consists of all students taking part in Statistics 1 at Humboldt University during the summer semester 1999. Statistical unit is one student.

En folnode2 c k 1 2.gif HUMBOLDT UNIVERSITY BERLIN
Department of Statistics

Welcome to Statistics. Before we start, we would like to ask you few questions. Your answers will help us to optimize the lectures. Furthermore, your answers will be statistically analyzed during the lecture. Everybody, who fills in this questionnaire, will have a chance to win the multimedia version of Statistics 1 which is worth 200,-DM.

  1. Do you have access to internet?



  2. From where do you connect to internet?


  3. Which internet browser do you usually use?


  4. Do you have access to a multimedia computer (i.e. computer which can be used to play audio and video files?)


  5. Have you previously studied Theory of Probability or Stochastics?


  6. What is the probability that the sum of numbers of two dice is seven?


  7. In which state did you attended secondary school?


Thank you. If you would like to win the multimedia CD, please complete the following entries:

  • Name:
  • Id number: