Keywords

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Keywords augment the labels in the other categories by more ad hoc properties that we do not necessarily want to document systematically throughout, but that we still want to be able to keep track of should they prove relevant. They form a closed list of words which are documented here.

PLURAL

The internal argument of the verb is plural. This might not be marked explicitly. It might be apparent from the context or marked by number markers, quantifiers, numerals, the lexical semantics of the (pluractional) verb, reduplication of the verb or otherwise. The internal argument of the verb is the subject for intransitive verbs and the object in case of transitive verbs. Some examples with pluractional verbs from Daakaka:

vis ka we tesi du yan tan
banana ASR POT fall.PL stay.PL on ground
the bananas will fall down (Dalkalaen.exp50:067)

PERFORM

The utterance instantiates a performative speech act as in (I declare you man and wife, I hereby promise to..., I name this child..., I absolve you of your sins)

NEGMAT

An embedded proposition is positive but embedded in a negative matrix clause.

  • She didn't want [to leave].
  • She didn't think [he'd leave].
  • She didn't know [he'd left].

REPORT

Reported speech.

GENERIC

For generic descriptions.

HABITUAL

For obviously habitual descriptions.

PURPOSE

For purpose clauses ("in order to")

SEQUENCE

For descriptions of a series of actions as in:

  • She took a knife, diced a bunch of beets, tossed them with oil and spread them on a baking sheet.
  • He pulled the canoe onto the shore, then he made his way to the village and spoke with his children.

DURATION

We are interested in seemingly uninformative phrases that indicate the passage of time or the duration between events in a narrative.

Example: They were living like this for a long time, they went on and on and on. Often, these descriptions are bounded.

SONG

When a sequence of reported speech is a song.

BIPOLAR

For bipolar questions as in:

  • Did you see her or not?
  • Did you see her or didn't you?

CERTAIN

Since future-oriented statements can only be tagged as possible or counterfactual, but not factual, we do not have a way to distinguish between certain pronouncements and vague possibilities (If Trump wins, I will leave for Canada vs. One day there might be world peace.). In order to document cases in which an assertion about the future is a strong commitment with considerable certainty, we may add the keyword CERTAIN.

Reference time

We want to retain the option to specify the reference time R relative to the speech time S:

  • R < S
  • R = S
  • R > S

This option is particularly relevant for embedded clauses. The time value is determined relative to the matrix clause, which provides the reference time. Example:

  • He wanted [to put the light into the bag]. future, \keywords: R < S
  • She saw that he was going/ went to the beach. present, \keywords: R < S
  • He saw that she had gone to the beach. past, \keywords: R < S

Event time

In some languages, it is possible to specify the relation between event time and speech time. We do not expect this option for the subject languages, but in order to annotate the contexts where such marking would be appropriate, the following set of keywords can be used.

  • E < R
  • E = R
  • E > R
  • They left. [He had not roasted his food.] E < R

HEADTAIL

For linking structures where the beginning of one sentence repeats the end of the preceding sentences, as in the following example:

  • They finished eating and cleaned up the plates. They cleaned up the plates/ Having cleaned up the plates, they started playing music.

SERIAL

For interesting configurations with serial predicates.

COS

The keyword COS, change of state is applied here rather broadly to cover ingressive and egressive descriptions of event phases as well as descriptions of a change-of-state more generally. The label is only applied when explicit reference to the change is made or when there is an explicit contrast between two subsequent states.

Examples are given below:

  • She started to sing.
  • He stopped singing.
  • They were not singing anymore.
  • Now, they are singing (they weren't singing before).
  • She tried for a long time and then finally the knot came loose.

IAA (Inter-annotator agreement)

Inter-annotator agreement: please use this tag if you would like to have feedback by other project members on your choice of tags and/or keywords.