Ancient Egyptian:Glossing of common Earlier Egyptian forms

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What follows is a list of Earlier Egyptian (Middle Egyptian, Old Egyptian) grammatical forms and recommendations for their glossing.

Please contribute to the list or to the discussion of the glossing of specific forms.

Grammatical forms


Personal pronouns

‘Suffix pronouns’
Trad. Advanced Expert
=j :j :1SG -j -1SG
=k :k :2SG.M -k -2SG.M
=ṯ / =t :ṯ :2SG.F -2SG.F
=f :f :3SG.M -f -3SG.M
=s :s :3SG.F -s -3SG.F
=n :n :1PL -n -1PL
=ṯn / =tn :ṯn :2PL -čn -2PL
=sn :sn :3PL -sn -3PL
Old Egyptian additionally
=n(j) / =nj :nj :1DU -nj -1DU
=ṯn(j) / =ṯnj :ṯnj :2DU -čnj -2DU
=sn(j) / =snj :snj :3DU -snj -3DU
Later Middle Egyptian additionally
=tw :tw :IMPRS -tw -IMPRS
‘Enclitic personal pronouns’
Trad. Advanced Expert
wj wj 1SG =w (!) =1SG
ṯw / tw ṯw 2SG.M =čw =2SG.M
ṯn / tn ṯn 2SG.F =čn =2SG.F
sw sw 3SG.M =sw =3SG.M
s(j) / sï 3SG.F =sï =3SG.F
n n 1PL =n =1PL
ṯn / tn ṯn 2PL =čn =2PL
sn sn 3PL =sn =3PL
st st 3COLL =st =3COLL
Independent personal pronouns
Trad. Advanced Expert
jnk jnk 1SG jnk 1SG
ntk ntk 2SG.M nt:k 2SG.M
ntṯ / ntt ntṯ 2SG.F nt:č 2SG.F
ntf ntf 3SG.M nt:f 3SG.M
nts nts 3SG.F nt:s 3SG.F
*jnn jnn 1PL jnn 1PL
ntn ntn 1PL nt:n 1PL
ntṯn / nttn ntṯn 2PL nt:čn 2PL
ntsn ntsn 3PL nt:sn 3PL
Old Egyptian
ṯwt ṯwt 2SG.M čwt 2SG.M
ṯmt ṯmt 2SG.F čmt 2SG.F
swt swt 3SG.M swt 3SG.M
stt stt 3SG.F stt 3SG.F
Middle Egyptian
ṯwt / twt ṯwt 2SG čwt 2SG
swt swt 3SG swt 3SG
Neo-Middle Egyptian
ṯwt / twt ṯwt 2/3SG [1] čwt 2/3SG [1]
swt swt swt

Demonstrative pronouns

Trad. Advanced Expert
pw pw this:M pw DEM:M.SG
tw tw this:F tw DEM:F.SG
nw nw this nw DEM:C
nw n(j) nw_nï these nw_nï DEM:PL
jpw jpw these:M jpw DEM.PL:M
jptw jptw these:F jptw DEM.PL:F
Proximal (older form)
pn pn this:M pn DEM.PROX:M.SG
tn tn this:F tn DEM.PROX:F.SG
nn nn this nn DEM.PROX:C
nn n(j) nn_nï these nn_nï DEM.PROX:PL
jpn jpn these:M jpn DEM.PL:PROX:M
jptn jptn these:F jptn DEM.PL:PROX:F
Proximal (younger form)
pꜢ pꜢ this:M pꜢ DEM.PROX:M.SG
tꜢ tꜢ this:F tꜢ DEM.PROX:F.SG
nꜢ nꜢ this nꜢ DEM.PROX:C
nꜢ n(j) nꜢ_nï these nꜢ_nï DEM.PROX:PL
pf pf that:M pf DEM.DIST:M.SG
tf tf that:F tf DEM.DIST:F.SG
nf nf that nf DEM.DIST:C
nf n(j) nf_nï those nf_nï DEM.DIST:PL
jpf jpf those:M jpf DEM.PL:DIST:M
jptf jptf those:F jptf DEM.PL:DIST:F


Trad. Advanced Expert
tꜢ tꜢ land.M tꜢ land(M)[SG]
tꜢ.w tꜢ:w land:M.PL tꜢ-w land(M)-PL
tꜢ.wï tꜢ:wï land:M.DU tꜢ-wï land(M)-DU
p.t p:t sky:F p:t sky:F[SG]
p.(w)t p:t (!) sky:F.PL p:t (!) sky:F:PL
p.tï p:tï sky:F.DU p:tï sky:F:DU
jn.w jn:w tribute:M jn:w tribute:M[SG]
(analytic: bring:COLL.M[SG])
šn.w šn:w circumference:M šn:w circumference:M[SG]
(analytic: circumfer:ABSTR.M[SG])
spr.w spr:w petitioner:M spr:w petitioner:M[SG]
(analytic: petition:AGT.M[SG])
wrḏ.w wrḏ:w weary_one:M wrč̣:w weary_one:M[SG]
(analytic: weary:NMLZ.M[SG])
šn.wt šn:wt royal_entourage:F šn:wt royal_entourage:F[SG]
(analytic: circumfer:COLL.F)
ḥz.wt ḥz:wt favour:F ḥz:wt favour:F[SG]
(analytic: praise:ABSTR.F)
‘Why do you recommend the glossing transcription p:t sky:F instead of p-t sky-F, since the -t clearly marks a feminine noun?’
The gloss p-t sky-F might make the reader understand that p alone is a word for ‘sky’ and that -t is a optional inflection or derivation morpheme. This however is not the case. The feature feminine (F) is inherent to the whole word. By choosing the ‘:’, we want to make clear that the feature ‘feminine’ is not solely present in the -t.
‘Why does the glossing show the sequence number–gender in some cases, but gender–number in others?’
The sequence of glossed categories in personal pronouns (person–number–gender) is different from that in other nominal morphemes (gender–number). This convention is due to the fact that in the case of personal pronouns the markedness for gender is not obligatory – so here gender comes last in the sequence – while with other nominal forms gender is often implicit, but number is optional and often marked by an additional morpheme – so here gender comes first.

Nominal status constructus

Trad. Advanced Expert
tꜢ-jmn.t /
tꜢ jmn.t
tꜢ jmn:t land.M west:F or
land.M:STC west:F
tꜢ= jmn:t land(M)[SG]= west:F[SG] or
land(M)[SG]:STC west:F[SG]
nb.t-p.t /
nb.t p.t
nb:t p:t mistress:F sky:F or
mistress:F:STC sky:F
nb:t= p:t mistress:F[SG]= sky:F[SG] or
mistress:F[SG]:STC sky:F[SG]


Trad. Advanced Expert
nfr nfr good nfr good[M.SG]
nfr.w nfr:w good:M.PL nfr-w good-M.PL
nfr.wï nfr:wï good:M.DU nfr-wï good-M.DU
nfr.t nfr:t good:F nfr-t good-F[SG]
nfr.(w)t nfr:t (!) good:F.PL nfr-t (!) good-F:PL
nfr.tï nfr:tï good:F.DU nfr-tï good-F:DU

Ordinal number affix

Trad. Advanced Expert
.nw (e.g. 4.nw) :nw :ORD -nw -ORD
mḥ mḥ ORD same as advanced

Existential adjectives

Trad. Advanced Expert
wn wn existent same as advanced
nn nn not_existent same as advanced


Trad. Advanced Expert
jmnt.ï / jmnt(.j) jmnt:ï west:ADJZ jmnt-ï west-ADJZ[M.SG]
jmnt.(j)w jmnt:ï:w west:ADJZ:M.PL jmnt-ï-w west-ADJZ-M.PL
jmnt.(j)t jmnt:ï:t west:ADJZ:F jmnt-ï-t west-ADJZ-F
ẖr(.j) / ẖr.ï ẖr:ï under:ADJZ ẖr-ï under-ADJZ[M.SG]
ẖr.(j)w ẖr:ï:w under:ADJZ:M.PL ẖr-ï-w under-ADJZ-M.PL
ẖr.(j)t ẖr:ï:t under:ADJZ:F ẖr-ï-t under-ADJZ-F

‘Indirect Genitive’

Trad. Advanced Expert
n(j) of of[M.SG]
n(j).w nï:w of:M.PL nï-w of-M.PL
n(j).t nï:t of:F nï-t of-F
n(j) (uninflected) of of

Relative pronouns

Trad. Advanced Expert
ntï / nt(j) ntï REL ntï REL[M.SG]
nt(j).w ntï:w REL:M.PL ntï-w REL-M.PL
nt(j).t ntï:t REL:F ntï-t REL-F
jwtï / jwt(j) jwtï REL.NEG jwtï REL.NEG[M.SG]
jwt(j).w jwtï:w REL.NEG:M.PL jwtï-w REL.NEG-M.PL
jwt(j).t jwtï:t REL.NEG:F jwtï-t REL.NEG-F

Uninflected verbal forms


Trad. Advanced Expert
sḏm sḏm hear:INF sč̣m hear\INF
s:Ꜥnḫ s:Ꜥnḫ CAUS:live:INF s-Ꜥnḫ CAUS-live\INF
s:ḏd s:ḏd:t tell:INF s:č̣ṭ:t tell\INF
gmi̯.t gm:t find:INF gm:t find\INF
‘Why is it recommended to transcribe and gloss gmi̯.t as gm:t gm:t find\INF instead of gm-t find-INF?’
A gloss gm-t find-INF would make the reader understand that gm alone is an unmarked stem for ‘find’ and that -t is the only feature that marks the infinitive (INF). This however is not the case. The feature INF is distributed across the whole word, i.e. it is a transfix. Indeed, INF equals /_ī_it/ in verbs IIIae inf. like gmi̯ and /_a_a_/ in strong 3rad verbs like sḏm. With the markup with ‘\’, the encoder makes it clear that the feature INF is not solely present in the .t.
This remark is relevant for most of the other verbal and de-verbal forms.

‘Complementary Infinitive’

Trad. Advanced Expert
sḏm.t sḏm:t find:ADV.INF sč̣m:t find\ADV.INF

‘Negatival Complement’

Trad. Advanced Expert
gmi̯(.w) / gmi̯.w gm:w find:ADVZ gm:w find\ADVZ

Verbal forms with person/number inflection


Trad. Advanced Expert
gmi̯ gm find:IMP gm find\IMP
gmi̯(.w) / gmy(.w) gm:w / gmy:w find:IMP:PL gm-w / gmy-w find\IMP-PL
m m do.not:IMP m PROH

Resultative alias Stative alias ‘Pseudo-participle’

Middle Egyptian
Trad. Advanced Expert
gmi̯.kw / gmi̯.k(w) gm:kw find:RES:1SG gm-kw find\RES-1SG
gmi̯.t(j) / gmi̯.tj gm:tj find:RES:2SG gm-tj find\RES-2SG
gmi̯ /
gm /
find:RES:3SG.M gm /
find\RES[3SG.M] /
gmi̯.t(j) / gmi̯.tj gm:tj find:RES:3SG.F gm-tj find\RES-3SG.F
*gmi̯.(w)n / *gmi̯.wn gm:wn find:RES:1PL gm-wn find\RES-1PL
gmi̯.wïn gm:wïn gm-wïn
gmi̯.twnï / gmi̯.twn(ï) gm:twnï find:RES:2PL gm-twnï find\RES-2PL
gmi̯.w / gmi̯(.w) / gmy(.w) gm:w / gmy:w find:RES:3PL gm-w / gmy-w find\RES-3PL
Old Egyptian (orthography)
Trad. Advanced Expert
gmi̯.k(j) / gmi̯.kj gm:kj find:RES:1SG gm-kj find\RES-1SG
gmi̯.t(j) / gmi̯.tj gm:tj find:RES:2SG gm-tj find\RES-2SG
gmi̯ / gmi̯(.j) gm / gm.j find:RES:3SG.M gm / gm.j find\RES[3SG.M] / find\RES:3SG.M
gmi̯.t(j) / gmi̯.tj gm:tj find:RES:3SG.F gm-tj find\RES-3SG.F
*gmi̯.(w)n / gmi̯.wn gm:wn find:RES:1PL gm-wn find\RES-1PL
gmi̯.twn(j) gm:twnj find:RES:2PL gm-twnj find\RES-2PL
gmi̯(.w) / gmi̯.w / gmj(.w) gm:w / gmj:w find:RES:3PL.M gm-w / gmj-w find\RES-3PL.M
gmi̯.t(j) / gmi̯.tj gm:tj find:RES:3PL.F gm-tj find\RES-3PL.F

Verbal forms with tense/aspect/mode inflection

‘Suffix Conjugation’

Name Trad. Advanced Expert
alias ‘Present’
alias ‘Circumstantial’
gmi̯ gm find:IPFV gm find\IPFV
mꜢ mꜢ see:IPFV mꜢ see\IPFV
alias ‘Prospective’
gmy / gmi̯ gmy / gm find:SBJV gmy / gm find\SBJV
jn.t jnt fetch:SBJV jn:t fetch\SBJV
mꜢ mꜢ see:SBJV mꜢ see\SBJV
mꜢn mꜢn see:SBJV mꜢn see\SBJV
nn gmy nn gmy not find:SBJV nn gmy NEG find\SBJV
alias ‘Prospective’
alias ‘Future’
gmi̯.w / gmi̯.y /
gm:w / gm:y find:POST gm:w / gm:y find\POST
mꜢꜢ mꜢꜢ see:POST mꜢꜢ see\POST
n(j) gmi̯.w nj gm:w not find:POST nj=gm:w NEG=find\POST
alias ‘Perfect’
alias ‘Perfective’
gmi̯.n gm:n find:ANT gm:n find\ANT
(analytic: find\PFV.ANT)
mꜢ.n mꜢ:n see:ANT mꜢ:n see\ANT
(analytic: see\PFV.ANT)
n(j) gmi̯.n nj gm:n not find:PFV (!) nj=gm:n NEG=find\PFV.ANT (!)
‘Perfective’ gmi̯ gm find:PFV gm find\PFV ‘Perfective’
mꜢ mꜢ see:PRV mꜢ see\PRV
n(j) gmi̯ nj gm not find:PFV nj=gm NEG=find\PFV
alias ‘Terminative’
sḏm.t sḏm:t hear:COMPL sč̣m:t hear\COMPL
mꜢꜢ.t mꜢꜢ:t see:COMPL mꜢꜢ:t see\COMPL
nj gmi̯.t nj gm:t not find:COMPL nj=gm:t NEG=find\COMPL
‘Perfective Passive’
alias ‘Passive’
gmi̯(.w) gm:w find:PFV.PASS gm:w find\PFV.PASS
mꜢ mꜢ see:PFV.PASS mꜢ see\PFV.PASS
n(j) gmi̯(.w) nj gm:w not find:PFV.PASS nj=gm:w NEG=find\PFV.PASS
‘Posterior Passive’
alias ‘Passive’
gmi̯.w gm:w find:POST.PASS gm:w find\POST.PASS
n(j) gmi̯(.w) nj gm:w not find:POST.PASS nj=gm:w NEG=find\POST.PASS
‘Posterior Passive’
alias ‘Prospective Passive’
sḏmm sḏmm hear:POST.PASS sč̣m~m hear~POST.PASS
n(j) sḏmm nj sḏmm not hear:POST.PASS nj=sč̣m~m NEG=hear~POST.PASS

Note that the optionally following personal suffix pronoun, from which these verbal forms have their traditional Egyptological name ‘Suffix Conjugation’, is not a true inflection since it is in complementary distribution with full noun phrases.

Cf. the following two sentences:

jw gmi̯.n nzw mḏꜣ.t jw gmi̯.n=f mḏꜣ.t
jw gmi̯:n nzw mḏꜣ:t jw gmi̯:n-f mḏꜣ:t
GRND find\ANT king(M)[SG] writing:F[SG] GRND find\ANT-3SG.M writing:F[SG]
The king found the manuscript.’ He found the manuscript.’

‘How shall we deal with the ‘aorist’ nj sḏm.n=f?’
The gloss refers to the morphology. Therefore, we should gloss the verbal sḏm.n=f in the same way in all instances. (Also: If we treated the case of nj sḏm.n=f specially, we would hide the interesting semantic effect in Egyptian from the reader. But he might be interested to see!)
‘Why is it that nj sḏm.n=f does not normally have anterior meaning?’
The ‘Anterior’ sḏm.n=f is a perfective (phasal aspect) anterior (relative tense) form in Middle Egyptian. Egyptian – like a few other languages – uses a perfective form for a general negation of action (‘does not happen; does never happen’). ‘Perfective’ is a specific phasal aspect. It means that the speaker chooses to look at the action as a whole – from the beginning to its end, explicitly enclosing its end. Since one can normally only speak about the end if an action has already ended (Bounded Event Constraint), perfective forms usually have anterior (relative tense) or past (absolute tense) meaning. If an action does never occurs, however, this natural conclusion is not mandatory. By choosing a perfective form, languages like Egyptian simply insist to convey the information that the whole action – from its beginning to its end (perfective aspect) – never occurs. [2]

Nominal verb forms of the ‘Suffix Conjugation’

Note that some of these forms are morphologically related to the respective ‘relative forms’ (see below). Indeed, they are ‘uninflected relative forms’ in as far as they are ‘relative forms’ without number/gender endings. [3]

Name Trad. Advanced Expert
‘Nominal Anterior’
alias ‘Nominal Perfective’
alias ‘Nominal Perfect’
gmi̯.n gm:n find:NMLZ:ANT gm:n find\NMLZ:ANT
‘Nominal Imperfective’
alias ‘Nominal Present’
gmm gmm find:NMLZ:IPFV gm~m find\NMLZ~IPFV
sḏm sḏm hear:NMLZ.IPFV sč̣m hear\NMLZ.IPFV
‘Neutral Nominal Verbal Form’ gmy / gm(y) gmy / gm find:NMLZ gmy, gm find\NMLZ

Consecutive verb forms, alias ‘Contingent verb forms’

Name Trad. Advanced Expert
‘Consecutive’ gmi̯.jn gm:jn find:CNSV gm:jn find\CNSV
 (‘Perfective Consecutive’) gmi̯.jn gm-jn find\PRV-CNSV
 (‘Imperfective Consecutive’) gmi̯.jn gm-jn find\IPFV-CNSV
 (‘Posterior Consecutive’) gmi̯(.w).jn / gmi̯.w.jn gm:w-jn find\POST-CNSV
‘Obligative’ gmi̯.ḫr gm:ḫr find:OBLV gm:ḫr find\OBLV
 (‘Imperfective Obligative’) gmi̯.ḫr gm-ḫr find\IPFV-OBLV
 (‘Subjunctive Obligative’) gm(y).ḫr gmy-ḫr find\SBJV-OBLV
‘Potentialis’ gmi̯.kꜢ gm:kꜢ find:CNSV.POT gm:kꜢ find\CNSV.POT
 (‘Posterior Potentialis’) gmi̯(.w).kꜢ / gmi̯.w.kꜢ gm:w-kꜢ find\POST-CNSV.POT
 (‘Subjunctive Potentialis’) gm(y).kꜢ gmy-kꜢ find\SBJV-CNSV.POT

Passive suffix

Trad. Advanced Expert
Middle Egyptian (orthography)
.t(w) / .tw :tw :PASS -tw (or -t) -PASS
Old Egyptian (orthography)
.t(j) / .tj :tj :PASS -tj (or -t) -PASS

Auxiliary verbs

Trad. Advanced Expert
tm tm not_do same as advanced
pꜢw / pꜢ(w) pꜢw did same as advanced

Adjectival verbal forms

‘Relative Forms’

Note that at least some of these forms are morphologically related to or indeed identical with the respective passive participles (see below).

Trad. Advanced Expert
‘Anterior Relative Form’ alias ‘Perfective Relative Form’ alias ‘Relative Form Perfect’
gmi̯.n gm:n find:REL:ANT gm:n find\REL[M]:ANT
gmi̯.t.n gm:t:n find:REL:F:ANT gm:t:n find\REL:F:ANT
‘Imperfective Relative Form’
gmm.w / gmm(.w) gmm:w find:REL.IPFV:M gm~m-w find~REL.IPFV-M[SG]
gmm.w / gmm.w(w) gmm:w find:REL.IPFV:M.PL gm~m-ww (!) find~REL.IPFV-M:PL
sḏm.w / sḏm(.w) sḏm:w hear:REL.IPFV:M sč̣m-w hear\REL.IPFV-M[SG]
sḏm.w / sḏm.w(w) sḏm:w hear:REL.IPFV:M.PL sč̣m-ww (!) hear\REL.IPFV-M:PL
gmm.t gmm:t find:REL.IPFV:F gm~m-t find~REL.IPFV-F
sḏm.t sḏm:t hear:REL.IPFV:F sč̣m-t hear\REL.IPFV-F
Clère’s relative form’ alias ‘Perfective Relative Form’
gmy / gm(y) gmy find:REL gmy find\REL[M.SG]
gmy(.w) / gm(y).w gmy:w find:REL:M.PL gmy-w find\REL-M.PL
gm(y).t / gmy.t gmy:t find:REL:F gmy-t find\REL-F


Trad. Advanced Expert
‘Neutral participle active’ alias ‘Perfective participle active’
gmi̯ gm find:PTCP.ACT gm find\PTCP.ACT[M.SG]
gmi̯(.w) / gmi̯.w gm:w find:PTCP.ACT:M.PL gm-w find\PTCP.ACT-M.PL
gmi̯.t gm:t find:PTCP.ACT:F gm-t find\PTCP.ACT-F
‘Neutral participle passive’ alias ‘Perfective participle passive’
gmy / gm(y) gmy find:PTCP.PASS gmy find\PTCP.PASS[M.SG]
gmy(.w) / gm(y).w gmy:w find:PTCP.PASS:M.PL gmy-w find\PTCP.PASS-M.PL
gm(y).t / gmy.t gmy:t find:PTCP.PASS:F gmy-t find\PTCP.PASS-F
‘Distributive participle active’ alias ‘Imperfective participle active’
gmm(.ï) / gmm.ï / gmm.y gmm:ï , gmm:y find:PTCP:DISTR.ACT gm~m:ï , gm~m:y find~PTCP:DISTR.ACT[M.SG]
gmm.yw / gmm.y(w) / gmm.(y)w gmm:y:w find:PTCP:DISTR.ACT:M.PL gm~m:y-w find~PTCP:DISTR.ACT-M.PL
gmm.t gmm:t find:PTCP:DISTR.ACT:F gm~m-t find~PTCP:DISTR.ACT-F
sḏm(.ï) / sḏm.ï / sḏm.y sḏm:ï , sḏm:y hear:PTCP.DISTR.ACT sč̣m:ï , sč̣m:y hear\PTCP.DISTR.ACT[M.SG]
sḏm.yw / sḏm.(y)w / sḏm.y(w) sḏm:y:w hear:PTCP.DISTR.ACT:M.PL
(abbr.: hear:PDA:M.PL)
sč̣m:y-w hear\PTCP.DISTR.ACT-M.PL
sḏm.t sḏm:t hear:PTCP.DISTR.ACT:F sč̣m-t hear\PTCP.DISTR.ACT-F
‘Distributive participle passive’ alias ‘Imperfective participle passive’
gmm.w / gmm(.w) gmm:w find:PTCP:DISTR:PASS:M gm~m-w find~PTCP:DISTR:PASS-M[SG]
gmm.w / gmm.w(w) gmm:w find:PTCP:DISTR:PASS:M:PL gm~m-ww (!) find~PTCP:DISTR:PASS-M:PL
gmm.t gmm:t find:PTCP:DISTR:PASS:F gm~m-t find~PTCP:DISTR:PASS-F
sḏm.w / sḏm(.w) sḏm:w hear:PTCP.DISTR:PASS:M sč̣m-w hear\PTCP.DISTR:PASS-M[SG]
sḏm.w / sḏm.w(w) sḏm:w hear:PTCP.DISTR:PASS:M:PL sč̣m-ww (!) hear\PTCP.DISTR:PASS-M:PL
sḏm.t sḏm:t hear:PTCP.DISTR:PASS:F sč̣m-t hear\PTCP.DISTR:PASS-F
‘Posterior participle’ alias ‘Prospective participle’
gmi̯.y / gmi̯(.y) gm:y find:PTCP.POST:M gm:y find\PTCP.POST:M
gmi̯.tj / gmi̯.t(j) gm:t:j find:PTCP.POST:F gm:t:j find\PTCP.POST:F
‘Posterior verbal adjective’ alias ‘Prospective verbal adjective’
gmi̯.tï=f{ï} / gmi̯.t(ï)=f{ï} / gmi̯.tï=f gm:tï:f find:PTCP.POST.ACT:M.SG gm:tï:f find\PTCP.POST.ACT:M.SG
gmi̯.tï=s{ï} / gmi̯.t(ï)=s{ï} / gmi̯.tï=s gm:tï:s find:PTCP.POST.ACT:F.SG gm:tï:s find\PTCP.POST.ACT:F.SG
gmi̯.tï=sn / gmi̯.t(ï)=sn gm:tï:sn find:PTCP.POST.ACT:PL gm:tï:sn find\PTCP.POST.ACT:PL
Trad. Advanced Expert
‘Neutral participle active’ alias ‘Perfective participle active’
gmi̯ gm find:PA gm find\PA[M.SG]
gmi̯(.w) / gmi̯.w gm:w find:PA:M.PL gm-w find\PA-M.PL
gmi̯.t gm:t find:PA:F gm-t find\PA-F
‘Neutral participle passive’ alias ‘Perfective participle passive’
gmy / gm(y) gmy find:PP gmy find\PP[M.SG]
gmy(.w) / gm(y).w gmy:w find:PP:M.PL gmy-w find\PP-M.PL
gm(y).t / gmy.t gmy:t find:PP:F gmy-t find\PP-F
‘Distributive participle active’ alias ‘Imperfective participle active’
gmm(.ï) / gmm.ï / gmm.y gmm:ï , gmm:y find:PDA gm~m:ï , gm~m:y find~PDA[M.SG]
gmm.yw / gmm.y(w) / gmm.(y)w gmm:y:w find:PDA:M.PL gm~m:y-w find~PDA-M.PL
gmm.t gmm:t find:PDA:F gm~m-t find~PDA-F
sḏm(.ï) / sḏm.ï / sḏm.y sḏm:ï , sḏm:y hear:PDA sč̣m:ï , sč̣m:y hear\PDA[M.SG]
sḏm.yw / sḏm.(y)w / sḏm.y(w) / sḏm:y:w hear:PDA:M.PL sč̣m:y-w hear\PDA-M.PL
sḏm.t sḏm:t hear:PDA:F sč̣m-t hear\PDA-F
‘Distributive participle passive’ alias ‘Imperfective participle passive’
gmm.w / gmm(.w) gmm:w find:PDP:M gm~m-w find~PDP-M[SG]
gmm.w / gmm.w(w) gmm:w find:PDP:M:PL gm~m-ww (!) find~PDP-M:PL
gmm.t gmm:t find:PDP:F gm~m-t find~PDP-F
sḏm.w / sḏm(.w) sḏm:w hear:PDP:M sč̣m-w hear\PDP-M[SG]
sḏm.w / sḏm.w(w) sḏm:w hear:PDP:M:PL sč̣m-ww (!) hear\PDP-M:PL
sḏm.t sḏm:t hear:PDP:F sč̣m-t hear\PDP-F
‘Posterior participle’ alias ‘Prospective participle’
gmi̯.y / gmi̯(.y) gm:y find:PPO:M gm:y find\PPO:M
gmi̯.tj / gmi̯.t(j) gm:t:j find:PPO:F gm:t:j find\PPO:F
‘Posterior verbal adjective’ alias ‘Prospective verbal adjective’
gmi̯.tï=f{ï} / gmi̯.t(ï)=f{ï} / gmi̯.tï=f gm:tï:f find:PPA:M.SG gm:tï:f find\PPA:M.SG
gmi̯.tï=s{ï} / gmi̯.t(ï)=s{ï} / gmi̯.tï=s gm:tï:s find:PPA:F.SG gm:tï:s find\PPA:F.SG
gmi̯.tï=sn / gmi̯.t(ï)=sn gm:tï:sn find:PPA:PL gm:tï:sn find\PPA:PL

Particles and function words


Trad. Advanced Expert
r (STN) r to / against / attached [4] / as_for r= ALL= / against= / ATTD= [4] / as_for=
jr= / r= (STPR) jr- / r- to- / against- / attached- [4] / as_for- r- ALL- / against- / ATTD- / as_for-
n (STN) n for / due_to n= BEN= / due_to=
n= (STPR) n- for- / due_to- n- BEN- / due_to-
m (STN) m in / from [4] / made_of / as / with m= INESS= / ABL= [4] / made_of= / as= / with=
jm= (STPR) m- in- / from- [4] / made_of- / as- / with- jm- INESS- / ABL- [4] / made_of- / as- / with-
ḥr ḥr on / above / at / because_of ḥr SUPR [4] / at / because_of
dp (trad. tp)[5] dp upon / on / ahead [4] ṭp upon / on / ahead [4]
ẖr ẖr under / below / with ẖr INFR [4] / with

Autonomous and enclitic particles

Trad. Advanced Expert
j j EXLM same as advanced
jw jw GRND / CORD same as advanced
jwt jwt that_not jwt COMP.NEG
jn jn Q same as advanced
jn jn by jn AGT
jr jr as_for jr TOPZ
js js FOCZ =js =FOCZ
ꜤḥꜤ.n ꜤḥꜤ:n then ꜤḥꜤ:n CJVB:ANT
.wï (adjectival clause) :wï :EXLM -wï -EXLM
wn.jn wn:jn then wn:jn CJVB:CNSV
wnt wnt that wnt COMP
pw (nominal clause) pw this =pw =DEM.C
m=k m:k look.IMP:2SG.M m-k ATTN-2SG.M
m=ṯ m:ṯ look.IMP:2SG.F m-č ATTN-2SG.F
m=ṯn m:ṯn look.IMP:2PL m-čn ATTN-2PL
n(j) nj not nj= NEG=
n(j) ... js nj ... js not1 ... not1 nj= ... js NEG1= ... NEG1
nn nn not / non_existent nn NEG / non_existent
ntt ntt that ntt COMP
ḥwï / ḥw(ï) ḥwï same as advanced
ḥꜢ ḥꜢ MODP same as advanced
ḫr ḫr OBLV same as advanced
sk , jsṯ , ... sk , jsṯ , ... SBRD / meanwhile sk , jsč , ... SBRD / meanwhile
tj tj SBRD / while same as advanced
kꜢ kꜢ CNSV.POT same as advanced


Trad. Advanced Expert
ꜤꜢ ꜤꜢ here same as advanced
jm jm there same as advanced
wr.t wr:t very wr:t very:ADVZ

Selected clause patterns

Trad. Advanced Expert
jw=s sḏm=s jw:s sḏm:s GRND:3SG.F hear:IPFV:3SG.F jw-s sč̣m-s GRND-3SG.F hear\IPFV-3SG.F
jw sḏm.n=s jw sḏm:n:s GRND hear:ANT:3SG.F jw sč̣m:n-s GRND hear\ANT-3SG.F
nzw ḥr gmi̯.t nzw ḥr gm:t king.M at find:INF nzw ḥr gm:t king(M)[SG] at find\INF
jw nzw ḥr gmi̯.t jw nzw ḥr gm:t GRND king.M at find:INF jw nzw ḥr gm:t GRND king(M)[SG] at find\INF
jw=f ḥr gmi̯.t jw:f ḥr gm:t GRND:3SG.M at find:INF jw-f ḥr gm:t GRND-3SG.M at find\INF
nzw m jyi̯.t nzw m jy:t king.M in come:INF nzw m= jy:t king(M)[SG] in= come\INF
nzw r gmi̯.t nzw r gm:t king.M to find:INF nzw r= gm:t king(M)[SG] to= find\INF
jw nzw r gmi̯.t jw nzw r gm:t GRND king.M to find:INF jw nzw r= gm:t GRND king(M)[SG] to= find\INF
jw=f r gmi̯.t jw:f r gm:t GRND:3SG.M to find:INF jw-f r= gm:t GRND-3SG.M to= find\INF
(j)ḫ.t pw nfr.t jḫ:t pw nfr:t thing:F DEM.C good:F jḫ:t =pw nfr:t thing:F[SG] =DEM.C good:F[SG]


  1. 1.0 1.1 Werning, Daniel A. (in print) Linguistic Dating of the Netherworld Books Attested in the New Kingdom. A critical review. To appear in: Gerald Moers et al. (eds.), [Dating Egyptian Literary Texts] (Lingua Aegyptia. Studia Monographica 11), Hamburg: Kai Widmaier, 44 pp.
  2. Werning, Daniel A. (2008) Aspect vs. Relative Tense, and the Typological Classification of the Ancient Egyptian sḏm.n=f, in: Lingua Aegyptia. Journal of Egyptian Language Studies 16, p. 261-292.
  3. Werning, Daniel A. (in print) Uninflected Relative Verb Forms as Converbs and Verbal Rhemes: The two schemes of the Emphatic Construction as a detached adjectival phrase construction and as a truncated Balanced Sentence. In: [Grossman, Eitan, Stéphane Polis, Andréas Stauder & Jean Winand] (eds.), [Proceedings of the conference ‘New Directions in Egyptian Syntax’, 12th–14th May 2011, Liège], ca. 28 pp.
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 Werning, Daniel A. (2012) Ancient Egyptian Prepositions for the Expression of Spatial Relations and their Translations. A typological approach. In: Eitan Grossmann, Stéphane Polis & Jean Winand (eds.), Lexical Semantics in Ancient Egyptian (Lingua Aegyptia. Studia Monographica 9), Hamburg: Kai Widmaier, p. 293-346.
  5. Werning. Daniel A. (2004) The Sound Values of the Signs Gardiner D1 (Head) and T8 (Dagger). In: Lingua Aegyptia. Journal of Egyptian Language Studies 12 p. 183–203.


  • Allen, James P. (2010) Middle Egyptian. An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs, 2nd ed., Cambridge: University Press, ISBN 978-0521741446, ISBN 978-0521517966. (Read online)
  • Malaise, Michael & Jean Winand (1999) Grammaire raisonnée de l’égyptien classique, Aegyptiaca Leodiensia 6, Liège: Centre informatique de philosophie et lettres, Book No. D/1999/0480/18.
  • * Schenkel, Wolfgang (2012) Tübinger Einführung in die klassisch-ägyptische Sprache und Schrift, 7th, rev. ed., Tübingen: Pagina, ISBN 978-3-938529-05-8.