Difference between revisions of "Unicode"

From Glossing Ancient Languages

Jump to: navigation, search
(T WITH CIRCUMFLEX BELOW ergänzt)
(Required Unicode characters: Variante mit ı entfernt)
 
(10 intermediate revisions by the same user not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
Transliterations and transcriptions of ancient languages usually use some '''special characters''', e.g. Greek signs, like alpha (α), ‘s’ with caron (''š''), ‘h’ with breve below (''ḫ''), ‘t’ with dot below (''ṭ''), Semitic Ain (''ꜥ''), Egyptological Alif (''ꜣ'').
+
Transliterations and transcriptions of ancient languages usually use some '''special characters''', e.g. Greek signs, like alpha (&alpha;), ‘s’ with caron (''š''), ‘h’ with breve below (''ḫ''), ‘t’ with dot below (''<span class="translit"></span>''), Semitic Ain (''<span class="translit"></span>''), Egyptological Alif (''<span class="translit"></span>'').
  
 
In order to produce a robust file for e.g. a publisher, i.e. a file that is going to be displayed correctly on any electronic device, it is advisable that the encoder uses strictly '''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unicode Unicode fonts]''' to enter his/her data. '''Characters''' that have been entered with a Unicode font '''cannot be confused''' on any other device. This is because the file actually contains the unique Unicode number of the intended character, e.g. <nowiki>U+1E6D</nowiki>. This number is unique and reserved for this very character all across the world in any Unicode font. With Unicode fonts, the only things that can happen are: a) The character cannot be displayed at all on the receiver’s device; b) The style of the font may be different, depending on the actual Unicode font that is installed on the receiver’s device.)  
 
In order to produce a robust file for e.g. a publisher, i.e. a file that is going to be displayed correctly on any electronic device, it is advisable that the encoder uses strictly '''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unicode Unicode fonts]''' to enter his/her data. '''Characters''' that have been entered with a Unicode font '''cannot be confused''' on any other device. This is because the file actually contains the unique Unicode number of the intended character, e.g. <nowiki>U+1E6D</nowiki>. This number is unique and reserved for this very character all across the world in any Unicode font. With Unicode fonts, the only things that can happen are: a) The character cannot be displayed at all on the receiver’s device; b) The style of the font may be different, depending on the actual Unicode font that is installed on the receiver’s device.)  
Line 11: Line 11:
 
| Glossing in general || [http://scripts.sil.org/cms/scripts/page.php?site_id=nrsi&id=charissil_download ''Charis SIL''] || diacritics, IPA symbols, ā ē ī ō ū  
 
| Glossing in general || [http://scripts.sil.org/cms/scripts/page.php?site_id=nrsi&id=charissil_download ''Charis SIL''] || diacritics, IPA symbols, ā ē ī ō ū  
 
|-
 
|-
| Akkadian || ''Times New Roman <br/>Arial Unicode MS <br/>[http://scripts.sil.org/cms/scripts/page.php?site_id=nrsi&id=charissil_download Charis SIL] <br/>[http://apagreekkeys.org/NAUdownload.html New Athena Unicode]'' || style="font-family:Charis SIL" | <big><big>''ʾ ʿ ḫ ṣ š ṭ''</big></big>
+
| Akkadian || ''Times New Roman <br/>Arial Unicode MS <br/>[http://scripts.sil.org/cms/scripts/page.php?site_id=nrsi&id=charissil_download Charis SIL] <br/>[http://apagreekkeys.org/NAUdownload.html New Athena Unicode] <br/>[http://junicode.sourceforge.net/) Junicode]'' || style="font-family:Times New Roman, Segoe UI" | <big><big>''ʾ ʿ ḫ ṣ š ṭ''</big></big>
 
|-
 
|-
| Coptic || [http://www.evertype.com/fonts/coptic/ ''Antinouu''] || style="font-family:Antinoou" | <big><big>ⲁ ⲉ ⲙ ϣ ϩ ϭ ϯ ⳉ ⳁ</big></big>  
+
| Coptic || [http://www.evertype.com/fonts/coptic/ ''Antinouu''] <br/>[http://www.ifao.egnet.net/publications/publier/outils-ed/polices/#download ''IFAO-Grec Unicode''] || style="font-family:Segoe UI Historic, Antinoou, IFAO-Grec Unicode" | <big><big>ⲁ ⲉ ⲙ ϣ ϩ ϭ ϯ ⳉ ⳁ</big></big>  
 
|-
 
|-
| Ancient&nbsp;Egyptian<ref>Daniel A. Werning. 28.7.2016. ''Egyptological Transliteration in Unicode'', http://hdl.handle.net/21.11101/0000-0000-9E1A-2; Wikipedia, [http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%84gyptische_Hieroglyphen#Hieroglyphen_in_der_Textverarbeitung ''Ägyptische Hieroglyphen. In der elektronischen Datenverarbeitung''].</ref> || ''[http://junicode.sourceforge.net/) Junicode]'' || style="font-family:Junicode" | <big><big>''ꜣ ʾ ı͗ i̯ ï ꜥ u̯ ḥ ḫ ẖ h̭ ś š ḳ č ṯ ṭ ṱ č̣ ḏ''</big></big>
+
| Ancient&nbsp;Egyptian&nbsp;<ref>Daniel A. Werning. 28.7.2016. ''Egyptological Transliteration in Unicode'', http://hdl.handle.net/21.11101/0000-0000-9E1A-2; Wikipedia, [http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%84gyptische_Hieroglyphen#Hieroglyphen_in_der_Textverarbeitung ''Ägyptische Hieroglyphen. In der elektronischen Datenverarbeitung''].</ref> || ''[http://apagreekkeys.org/NAUdownload.html New Athena Unicode] <br/>[http://junicode.sourceforge.net/) Junicode]'' || class="translit" | <big><big>''ꜣ ʾ ı͗ i̯ ï ꜥ u̯ ḥ ḫ ẖ h̭ ś š ḳ č ṯ ṭ ṱ''&nbsp;<ref>Capital &nbsp;Ṱ&nbsp; ''missing in New Athena Unicode.</ref> č̣ ḏ''</big></big>
 
|-
 
|-
| Ancient&nbsp;Egyptian, Pre-Demotic || ''[http://apagreekkeys.org/NAUdownload.html New Athena Unicode] <br/>[http://junicode.sourceforge.net/) Junicode]'' || style="font-family:New Athena Unicode" | <big><big>''ꜣ ʾ ı͗ i̯ ï ꜥ u̯ ḥ ḫ ẖ  ś š ḳ č ṯ ṭ č̣ ḏ''</big></big>
+
| Greek || [http://apagreekkeys.org/NAUdownload.html ''New Athena Unicode'']&nbsp;<ref>Note that New Athena Unicode  uses non-standardized [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Private_Use_%28Unicode%29 ''Private Use Area''] for some few characters, e.g. <span style="font-family:New Athena Unicode"><big><big>   </big></big></span>. See [https://apagreekkeys.org/technicalDetails.html#PUA here].</ref> <br/>[http://www.ifao.egnet.net/publications/publier/outils-ed/polices/#download ''IFAO-Grec Unicode''|| style="font-family:New Athena Unicode,IFAO-Grec Unicode" | <big><big>α ζ ς ή ω ᾆ ἧ ὧ</big></big>.
 
|-
 
|-
| Greek || [http://apagreekkeys.org/NAUdownload.html ''New Athena Unicode'']  || <span style="font-family:New Athena Unicode"><big><big>α ζ ς ή ω ᾆ ἧ ὧ</big></big></span>  <br/>{{Red|but uses non-standardized [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Private_Use_%28Unicode%29 ''Private Use Area''] <br/>for some few characters:}} e.g. <span style="font-family:New Athena Unicode"><big><big>   </big></big></span>.
+
| Hittite || ''Times New Roman <br/>Arial Unicode MS <br/>[http://scripts.sil.org/cms/scripts/page.php?site_id=nrsi&id=charissil_download Charis SIL] <br/>[http://apagreekkeys.org/NAUdownload.html New Athena Unicode] <br/>[http://junicode.sourceforge.net/) Junicode]'' || style="font-family:Times New Roman, Segoe UI" | <big><big>''ḫ š''</big></big>
|-
 
| Hittite || ''Times New Roman <br/>Arial Unicode MS <br/>[http://scripts.sil.org/cms/scripts/page.php?site_id=nrsi&id=charissil_download Charis SIL] <br/>[http://apagreekkeys.org/NAUdownload.html New Athena Unicode] <br/>[http://junicode.sourceforge.net/) Junicode]'' || style="font-family:Charis SIL" | <big><big>''ḫ š''</big></big>
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 44: Line 42:
 
! Character !! Unicode <br/>number !! Character  !! Unicode <br/>number !! Languages  
 
! Character !! Unicode <br/>number !! Character  !! Unicode <br/>number !! Languages  
 
|-
 
|-
| style="font-family:Charis SIL" |<big><big>ʿ</big></big> || U+02BF || style="font-family:Charis SIL" | <big><big></big></big> || || Akkadian
+
| class="translit" |<big><big>ʿ</big></big> || U+02BF || class="translit" | <big><big></big></big> || || Akkadian
 
|-
 
|-
| style="font-family:Charis SIL" |<big><big>ʾ</big></big> || U+02BE || style="font-family:Charis SIL" | <big><big></big></big> || || Akkadian, Ancient Egyptian
+
| class="translit" |<big><big>ʾ</big></big> || U+02BE || class="translit" | <big><big></big></big> || || Akkadian, Ancient Egyptian
 
|-
 
|-
| style="font-family:Charis SIL" | <big><big>ꜥ</big></big>&nbsp;<ref name="small_alif_malformed">The characters U+A725 LATIN {{Orange|SMALL}} LETTER EGYPTOLOGICAL AIN and U+A723 LATIN {{Orange|SMALL}} LETTER EGYPTOLOGICAL ALEF are not usually printed smaller than the respective capitals. For print typesetting (but not for database encoding), we recommend to use the respectice CAPITAL letters instead.</ref> || U+A725 || style="font-family:Charis SIL" | <big><big>Ꜥ</big></big> || U+A724|| Ancient Egyptian
+
| class="translit" | <big><big>ꜥ</big></big>&nbsp;<ref name="small_alif_malformed">The characters U+A725 LATIN {{Orange|SMALL}} LETTER EGYPTOLOGICAL AIN and U+A723 LATIN {{Orange|SMALL}} LETTER EGYPTOLOGICAL ALEF are often rendered smaller than the respective capitals in computer fonts. This, however, is not the case in most Egyptological print fonts. For print typesetting (but not for database encoding), we recommend to use the respectice CAPITAL letters instead.</ref> || U+A725 || class="translit" | <big><big>Ꜥ</big></big> || U+A724|| Ancient Egyptian
 
|-
 
|-
| style="font-family:Charis SIL" | <big><big>ꜣ</big></big>&nbsp;<ref name="small_alif_malformed" /> || U+A723 || style="font-family:Charis SIL" | <big><big>Ꜣ</big></big> || U+A722|| Ancient Egyptian
+
| class="translit" | <big><big>ꜣ</big></big>&nbsp;<ref name="small_alif_malformed" /> || U+A723 || class="translit" | <big><big>Ꜣ</big></big> || U+A722|| Ancient Egyptian
 
|-
 
|-
| style="font-family:Charis SIL" |<big><big>č</big></big> || U+010D || style="font-family:Charis SIL" | <big><big>Č</big></big> || U+010C|| Ancient Egyptian
+
| class="translit" |<big><big>č</big></big> || U+010D || class="translit" | <big><big>Č</big></big> || U+010C|| Ancient Egyptian
 
|-
 
|-
| style="font-family:Charis SIL" |<big><big>č̣</big></big> || U+010D&U+0323 || style="font-family:Charis SIL" | <big><big>Č̣</big></big> || U+010C&U+0323|| Ancient Egyptian
+
| class="translit" |<big><big>č̣</big></big> || U+010D&U+0323 || class="translit" | <big><big>Č̣</big></big> || U+010C&U+0323|| Ancient Egyptian
 
|-
 
|-
| style="font-family:Charis SIL" |<big><big>ḏ</big></big> || U+1E0F || style="font-family:Charis SIL" | <big><big>Ḏ</big></big> || U+1E0E|| Ancient Egyptian
+
| class="translit" |<big><big>ḏ</big></big> || U+1E0F || class="translit" | <big><big>Ḏ</big></big> || U+1E0E|| Ancient Egyptian
 
|-
 
|-
| style="font-family:Charis SIL" |<big><big>ḥ</big></big> || U+1E25 || style="font-family:Charis SIL" | <big><big>Ḥ</big></big> || U+1E24|| Ancient Egyptian
+
| class="translit" |<big><big>ḥ</big></big> || U+1E25 || class="translit" | <big><big>Ḥ</big></big> || U+1E24|| Ancient Egyptian
 
|-
 
|-
| style="font-family:Charis SIL" |<big><big>ḫ</big></big> || U+1E2B || style="font-family:Charis SIL" | <big><big>Ḫ</big></big> || U+1E2B|| Akkadian, Ancient Egyptian, Hittite
+
| class="translit" |<big><big>ḫ</big></big> || U+1E2B || class="translit" | <big><big>Ḫ</big></big> || U+1E2B|| Akkadian, Ancient Egyptian, Hittite
 
|-
 
|-
| style="font-family:Charis SIL" |<big><big>ẖ</big></big> || U+1E96 || style="font-family:Charis SIL" | <big><big>H̱</big></big> || 'H'+ U+0331|| Ancient Egyptian
+
| class="translit" |<big><big>ẖ</big></big> || U+1E96 || class="translit" | <big><big>H̱</big></big> || 'H'+ U+0331|| Ancient Egyptian
 
|-
 
|-
| style="font-family:Charis SIL" |<big><big>h̭</big></big> || 'h'&U+032D || style="font-family:Charis SIL" | <big><big>H̭</big></big> || 'H'&U+032D|| Ancient Egyptian
+
| class="translit" |<big><big>h̭</big></big> || 'h'&U+032D || class="translit" | <big><big>H̭</big></big> || 'H'&U+032D|| Ancient Egyptian
 
|-
 
|-
| style="font-family:Charis SIL" |<big><big>ı͗</big></big> || U+0131&U+0357 || style="font-family:Charis SIL" | <big><big>I͗</big></big> || 'I'&U+0357|| Ancient Egyptian
+
| class="translit" |<big><big></big></big> || 'i'&U+0357 || class="translit" | <big><big>I͗</big></big> || 'I'&U+0357 || Ancient Egyptian
 
|-
 
|-
| style="font-family:Charis SIL" |<big><big>i̯</big></big> || 'i'&U+032F || style="font-family:Charis SIL" | <big><big></big></big> || || Ancient Egyptian
+
| class="translit" |<big><big>i̯</big></big> || 'i'&U+032F || class="translit" | <big><big></big></big> || || Ancient Egyptian
 
|-
 
|-
| style="font-family:Charis SIL" |<big><big>ï</big></big> || U+00EF || style="font-family:Charis SIL" | <big><big></big></big> || || Ancient Egyptian
+
| class="translit" |<big><big>ï</big></big> || U+00EF || class="translit" | <big><big></big></big> || || Ancient Egyptian
 
|-
 
|-
| style="font-family:Charis SIL" |<big><big>ḳ</big></big> || U+1E33 || style="font-family:Charis SIL" | <big><big>Ḳ</big></big> || U+1E32|| Ancient Egyptian
+
| class="translit" |<big><big>ḳ</big></big> || U+1E33 || class="translit" | <big><big>Ḳ</big></big> || U+1E32|| Ancient Egyptian
 
|-
 
|-
| style="font-family:Charis SIL" |<big><big>ṣ</big></big> || U+032E || style="font-family:Charis SIL" | <big><big>Ṣ</big></big> || U+032D|| Akkadian
+
| class="translit" |<big><big>ṣ</big></big> || U+032E || class="translit" | <big><big>Ṣ</big></big> || U+032D|| Akkadian
 
|-
 
|-
| style="font-family:Charis SIL" |<big><big>ś</big></big> || U+015B || style="font-family:Charis SIL" | <big><big>Ś</big></big> || U+015A|| Ancient Egyptian
+
| class="translit" |<big><big>ś</big></big> || U+015B || class="translit" | <big><big>Ś</big></big> || U+015A|| Ancient Egyptian
 
|-
 
|-
| style="font-family:Charis SIL" |<big><big>š</big></big> || U+0161 || style="font-family:Charis SIL" | <big><big>Š</big></big> || U+0160|| Akkadian, Ancient Egyptian, Hittite
+
| class="translit" |<big><big>š</big></big> || U+0161 || class="translit" | <big><big>Š</big></big> || U+0160|| Akkadian, Ancient Egyptian, Hittite
 
|-
 
|-
| style="font-family:Charis SIL" |<big><big>ṯ</big></big> || U+1E6F || style="font-family:Charis SIL" | <big><big>Ṯ</big></big> || U+1E6E|| Ancient Egyptian
+
| class="translit" |<big><big>ṯ</big></big> || U+1E6F || class="translit" | <big><big>Ṯ</big></big> || U+1E6E|| Ancient Egyptian
 
|-
 
|-
| style="font-family:Charis SIL" |<big><big>ṭ</big></big> || U+1E6D || style="font-family:Charis SIL" | <big><big>Ṭ</big></big> || U+1E6C|| Akkadian, Ancient Egyptian
+
| class="translit" |<big><big>ṭ</big></big> || U+1E6D || class="translit" | <big><big>Ṭ</big></big> || U+1E6C|| Akkadian, Ancient Egyptian
 
|-
 
|-
| style="font-family:Charis SIL" |<big><big>ṱ</big></big> || U+1E71 || style="font-family:Charis SIL" | <big><big>Ṱ</big></big> || U+1E70|| Ancient Egyptian
+
| class="translit" |<big><big>ṱ</big></big> || U+1E71 || class="translit" | <big><big>Ṱ</big></big> || U+1E70|| Ancient Egyptian
 
|-
 
|-
| style="font-family:Charis SIL" |<big><big>u̯</big></big> || ‘u’&U+032F || style="font-family:Charis SIL" | <big><big></big></big> || || Ancient Egyptian
+
| class="translit" |<big><big>u̯</big></big> || ‘u’&U+032F || class="translit" | <big><big></big></big> || || Ancient Egyptian
 
|-
 
|-
| style="font-family:Charis SIL" |<big><big>⸗</big></big> || U+2E17 || style="font-family:Charis SIL" | <big><big></big></big> || || Ancient Egyptian
+
| class="translit" |<big><big>⸗</big></big> || U+2E17 || class="translit" | <big><big></big></big> || || Ancient Egyptian
 
|-
 
|-
| style="font-family:New Athena Unicode" |<big><big></big></big> || U+2E22 || style="font-family:Charis SIL" | <big><big></big></big> || U+2E23||  text critical markup
+
| class="translit" |<big><big>&#x2E22;</big></big> || U+2E22 || class="translit" | <big><big>&#x2E23;</big></big> || U+2E23||  text critical markup
 
|-
 
|-
| style="font-family:Charis SIL" |<big><big></big></big> || U+2329 || style="font-family:Charis SIL" | <big><big></big></big> || U+232A|| text critical markup
+
| class="translit" |<big><big>&#x2329;</big></big> || U+2329 || class="translit" | <big><big>&#x232A;</big></big> || U+232A|| text critical markup
  
 
|}
 
|}

Latest revision as of 13:20, 6 July 2018

Transliterations and transcriptions of ancient languages usually use some special characters, e.g. Greek signs, like alpha (α), ‘s’ with caron (š), ‘h’ with breve below (), ‘t’ with dot below (), Semitic Ain (), Egyptological Alif ().

In order to produce a robust file for e.g. a publisher, i.e. a file that is going to be displayed correctly on any electronic device, it is advisable that the encoder uses strictly Unicode fonts to enter his/her data. Characters that have been entered with a Unicode font cannot be confused on any other device. This is because the file actually contains the unique Unicode number of the intended character, e.g. U+1E6D. This number is unique and reserved for this very character all across the world in any Unicode font. With Unicode fonts, the only things that can happen are: a) The character cannot be displayed at all on the receiver’s device; b) The style of the font may be different, depending on the actual Unicode font that is installed on the receiver’s device.)

Recommended fonts[edit]

For glossing in general or for editing specific languages, we recommend to install the following fonts:

Language Fonts Character examples
Glossing in general Charis SIL diacritics, IPA symbols, ā ē ī ō ū
Akkadian Times New Roman
Arial Unicode MS
Charis SIL
New Athena Unicode
Junicode
ʾ ʿ ḫ ṣ š ṭ
Coptic Antinouu
IFAO-Grec Unicode
ⲁ ⲉ ⲙ ϣ ϩ ϭ ϯ ⳉ ⳁ
Ancient Egyptian [1] New Athena Unicode
Junicode
ꜣ ʾ ı͗ i̯ ï ꜥ u̯ ḥ ḫ ẖ h̭ ś š ḳ č ṯ ṭ ṱ [2] č̣ ḏ
Greek New Athena Unicode [3]
IFAO-Grec Unicode
α ζ ς ή ω ᾆ ἧ ὧ.
Hittite Times New Roman
Arial Unicode MS
Charis SIL
New Athena Unicode
Junicode
ḫ š

Recommended programs and links[edit]

Keyboard layouts[edit]

Creator programs[edit]

Ready layouts[edit]

Unicode character programs and links[edit]

Required Unicode characters[edit]

Character Unicode
number
Character Unicode
number
Languages
ʿ U+02BF Akkadian
ʾ U+02BE Akkadian, Ancient Egyptian
 [4] U+A725 U+A724 Ancient Egyptian
 [4] U+A723 U+A722 Ancient Egyptian
č U+010D Č U+010C Ancient Egyptian
č̣ U+010D&U+0323 Č̣ U+010C&U+0323 Ancient Egyptian
U+1E0F U+1E0E Ancient Egyptian
U+1E25 U+1E24 Ancient Egyptian
U+1E2B U+1E2B Akkadian, Ancient Egyptian, Hittite
U+1E96 'H'+ U+0331 Ancient Egyptian
'h'&U+032D 'H'&U+032D Ancient Egyptian
'i'&U+0357 'I'&U+0357 Ancient Egyptian
'i'&U+032F Ancient Egyptian
ï U+00EF Ancient Egyptian
U+1E33 U+1E32 Ancient Egyptian
U+032E U+032D Akkadian
ś U+015B Ś U+015A Ancient Egyptian
š U+0161 Š U+0160 Akkadian, Ancient Egyptian, Hittite
U+1E6F U+1E6E Ancient Egyptian
U+1E6D U+1E6C Akkadian, Ancient Egyptian
U+1E71 U+1E70 Ancient Egyptian
‘u’&U+032F Ancient Egyptian
U+2E17 Ancient Egyptian
U+2E22 U+2E23 text critical markup
U+2329 U+232A text critical markup

References[edit]

  1. Daniel A. Werning. 28.7.2016. Egyptological Transliteration in Unicode, http://hdl.handle.net/21.11101/0000-0000-9E1A-2; Wikipedia, Ägyptische Hieroglyphen. In der elektronischen Datenverarbeitung.
  2. Capital  Ṱ  missing in New Athena Unicode.
  3. Note that New Athena Unicode uses non-standardized Private Use Area for some few characters, e.g.    . See here.
  4. 4.0 4.1 The characters U+A725 LATIN SMALL LETTER EGYPTOLOGICAL AIN and U+A723 LATIN SMALL LETTER EGYPTOLOGICAL ALEF are often rendered smaller than the respective capitals in computer fonts. This, however, is not the case in most Egyptological print fonts. For print typesetting (but not for database encoding), we recommend to use the respectice CAPITAL letters instead.