Later Egyptian:Glossing of common Sahidic Coptic forms

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### Under construction ###

What follows is a list of Sahidic Coptic grammatical forms and recommendations for their glossing.

Please contribute to the list or to the discussion of the glossing of specific forms.

Grammatical forms

Pronouns

Personal pronouns

Suffix pronouns
Trad. Advanced
-ⲓ, -ⲧ, -∅ -1SG
-ⲕ, -ⲅ -2SG.M
-∅, -ⲉ -2SG.F
-3SG.M
-ⲥ -3SG.F
-ⲛ -1PL
-ⲧⲛ; =ⲧⲏⲩⲧⲛ -2PL; =2PL
-ⲟⲩ, -ⲩ -3PL
Personal second pronouns (Layton 2011, § 390e)
Trad. Advanced
-ⲧ -1SG
-ⲕ, -ⲥⲕ, -ⲧⲕ -2SG.M
not attested(?) -2SG.F
-ϥ, -ⲥϥ -3SG.M
-ⲥ -3SG.F
-ⲥⲛ -1PL
-ⲧⲏⲩⲧⲛ -2PL
-ⲥⲉ, -ⲥⲟⲩ -3PL
Independent personal pronouns
Trad. Advanced
unbound form (free use, cf. Layton 2011: § 71)
ⲁⲛⲟⲕ 1SG
ⲛⲧⲟⲕ 2SG.M
ⲛⲧⲟ 2SG.F
ⲛⲧⲟϥ 3SG.M
ⲛⲧⲟⲥ 3SG.F
ⲁⲛⲟⲛ 1PL
ⲛⲧⲱⲧⲛ 2PL
ⲛⲧⲟⲟⲩ 3PL
bound form (clitic, in Nominal Sentences; cf. Layton 2011: § 79)
ⲁⲛⲅ=, ⲁⲛⲟⲕ= 1SG.M
ⲛⲧⲕ=, ⲛⲧⲟⲕ= 2SG.M
ⲛⲧⲉ=, ⲛⲧⲟ= 2SG.F
ⲁⲛ=, ⲁⲛⲟⲛ= 1PL
ⲛⲧⲉⲧⲛ=, ⲛⲧⲱⲧⲛ= 2PL
Prefixed personal pronouns
Trad. Advanced
in Durative Sentences (= bipartite pattern; Layton 2011: § 78)
ϯ- 1SG-
ⲕ-, ⲅ- 2SG.M-
ⲧⲉ-, ⲧⲣ- 2SG.F-
ϥ- 3SG.M-
ⲥ- 3SG.F-
ⲧⲛ- 1PL-
ⲧⲉⲧⲛ- 2PL-
ⲥⲉ- 3PL-
in Non-durative Sentences (used with conjugation bases = tripartite pattern)
ⲓ-, ⲓ̈-, ⲁ-, 1SG-
ⲕ-, ⲉⲕ- 2SG.M-
ⲣ-, ⲣⲉ-, ⲉ-, ∅- (and similar) 2SG.F-
ϥ-, ⲉϥ- 3SG.M-
ⲥ-, ⲉⲥ- 3SG.F-
ⲛ-, ⲉⲛ- 1PL-
ⲧⲛ-, ⲧⲉⲧⲛ-, ⲉⲧⲛ- 2PL-
ⲟⲩ-, ⲩ- 3PL-

Demonstrative pronouns

Trad. Advanced Expert
Proximal
ⲡⲁⲓ̈, ⲡⲁⲉⲓ this:M DEM.PROX:M.SG
ⲧⲁⲓ̈, ⲧⲁⲉⲓ this:F DEM.PROX:F.SG
ⲛⲁⲓ̈, ⲛⲁⲉⲓ these DEM.PROX:PL
Distal
ⲡⲉⲧⲙⲙⲁⲩ that:M DEM.DIST:M.SG
ⲧⲉⲧⲙⲙⲁⲩ that:F DEM.DIST:F.SG
ⲛⲉⲧⲙⲙⲁⲩ those DEM.DIST:PL
Distal ('Affective')
ⲡⲏ that:M DEM.DIST:M.SG
ⲧⲏ that:F DEM.DIST:F.SG
ⲛⲏ those DEM.DIST:PL

Possessive pronouns (Possessed pronouns)

Trad. Advanced Expert
with following Noun phrase
ⲡⲁ= the_one:M_of= POSS:M.SG=
ⲧⲁ= the_one:F_of= POSS:F.SG=
ⲛⲁ= the_one:PL_of= POSS:PL=
with following Suffix pronoun
ⲡⲱ mine:M, yours:M, ... POSS:M.SG
ⲧⲱ mine:F, yours:F, ... POSS:F.SG
ⲛⲟⲩ mine:PL, yours:PL, ... POSS:PL

Determiners

Articles

Trad. Advanced Expert
indefinite
long short
ⲟⲩ= a= INDF.ART.SG= INDF.SG=
ϩⲉⲛ= INDF.ART.PL= INDF.PL=
definite
long short
ⲡ=, ⲡⲉ= the:M.SG= DEF.ART:M.SG= DEF:M.SG=
ⲧ=, ⲧⲉ= the:F.SG= DEF.ART:F.SG= DEF:F.SG=
ⲛ=, ⲛⲉ= the:PL= DEF.ART:PL= DEF:PL=

Demonstrative Articles

Trad. Advanced Expert
long short
ⲡⲉⲓ̈=, ⲡⲉⲉⲓ= this:M.SG= DEM.ART:M.SG= DEM:M.SG=
ⲧⲉⲓ̈=, ⲧⲉⲉⲓ= this:F.SG= DEM.ART:F.SG= DEM:F.SG=
ⲛⲉⲓ̈=, ⲛⲉⲉⲓ= these:PL= DEM.ART:PL= DEM.PL=

Possessive Determiners (Possessive Pronouns)

Trad. Advanced Expert
ⲡⲁ= my:M= POSS:M.SG:1SG=
ⲡⲉⲕ= your:M= POSS:M.SG:2SG.M=
ⲡⲟⲩ= your:M= POSS:M.SG:2SG.F=
ⲡⲉϥ= his:M= POSS:M.SG:3SG.M=
ⲡⲉⲥ= her:M= POSS:M.SG:3SG.F=
ⲡⲉⲛ= our:M= POSS:M.SG:1PL=
ⲡⲉⲧⲛ= your:M= POSS:M.SG:2PL=
ⲡⲉⲩ= their:M= POSS:M.SG:3PL=
ⲧⲁ= my:F= POSS:F.SG:1SG=
ⲧⲉⲕ= your.F= POSS:F.SG:2SG.M=
...
ⲛⲁ= my:PL= POSS:PL:1SG=
...

Nouns

Bare nouns

Trad. Advanced Expert
ⲙⲁ place.M.SG / place.M.PL place(M.SG) / place(M.PL)
ⲉⲃⲟⲧ month.M.SG month(M)[SG]
ⲉⲃⲁⲧⲉ month:M.PL month(M)\PL
ⲡⲉ sky.F sky(F)[SG]
ⲡⲏⲩⲉ sky:F.PL sky(F)\PL
ⲥϩⲓⲙⲉ woman.F.SG woman(F)[SG]
ϩⲓⲟⲙⲉ woman.F.PL woman.F.PL
nouns without grammatical gender (genderless nouns, Layton 2011: ...)