Later Egyptian:Glossing of common Sahidic Coptic forms

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What follows is a list of Sahidic Coptic grammatical forms and recommendations for their glossing.

Please contribute to the list or to the discussion of the glossing of specific forms.

Grammatical forms[edit]


Personal pronouns[edit]

Suffix pronouns[edit]
Trad. Advanced
-ⲓ, -ⲧ, -∅ -1SG
-ⲕ, -ⲅ -2SG.M
-∅, -ⲉ -2SG.F
-ⲥ -3SG.F
-ⲛ -1PL
-ⲧⲛ; =ⲧⲏⲩⲧⲛ -2PL; =2PL
-ⲟⲩ, -ⲩ -3PL
Personal second pronouns (Layton 2011, § 390e)[edit]
Trad. Advanced
-ⲧ -1SG
-ⲕ, -ⲥⲕ, -ⲧⲕ -2SG.M
not attested(?) -2SG.F
-ϥ, -ⲥϥ -3SG.M
-ⲥ -3SG.F
-ⲥⲛ -1PL
-ⲧⲏⲩⲧⲛ -2PL
-ⲥⲉ, -ⲥⲟⲩ -3PL
Independent personal pronouns[edit]
Trad. Advanced
unbound form (free use, cf. Layton 2011: § 71)
ⲁⲛⲟⲕ 1SG
ⲛⲧⲟⲕ 2SG.M
ⲛⲧⲟ 2SG.F
ⲛⲧⲟϥ 3SG.M
ⲛⲧⲟⲥ 3SG.F
ⲁⲛⲟⲛ 1PL
ⲛⲧⲱⲧⲛ 2PL
ⲛⲧⲟⲟⲩ 3PL
bound form (clitic, in Nominal Sentences; cf. Layton 2011: § 79)
ⲁⲛⲅ=, ⲁⲛⲟⲕ= 1SG.M
ⲛⲧⲕ=, ⲛⲧⲟⲕ= 2SG.M
ⲛⲧⲉ=, ⲛⲧⲟ= 2SG.F
ⲁⲛ=, ⲁⲛⲟⲛ= 1PL
ⲛⲧⲉⲧⲛ=, ⲛⲧⲱⲧⲛ= 2PL
Prefixed personal pronouns[edit]
Trad. Advanced
in Durative Sentences (= bipartite pattern; Layton 2011: § 78)
ϯ- 1SG-
ⲕ-, ⲅ- 2SG.M-
ⲧⲉ-, ⲧⲣ- 2SG.F-
ϥ- 3SG.M-
ⲥ- 3SG.F-
ⲧⲛ- 1PL-
ⲧⲉⲧⲛ- 2PL-
ⲥⲉ- 3PL-
in Non-durative Sentences (used with conjugation bases = tripartite pattern)
ⲓ-, ⲓ̈-, ⲁ-, 1SG-
ⲕ-, ⲉⲕ- 2SG.M-
ⲣ-, ⲣⲉ-, ⲉ-, ∅- (and similar) 2SG.F-
ϥ-, ⲉϥ- 3SG.M-
ⲥ-, ⲉⲥ- 3SG.F-
ⲛ-, ⲉⲛ- 1PL-
ⲧⲛ-, ⲧⲉⲧⲛ-, ⲉⲧⲛ- 2PL-
ⲟⲩ-, ⲩ- 3PL-

Demonstrative pronouns[edit]

Trad. Advanced Expert
ⲡⲁⲓ̈, ⲡⲁⲉⲓ this:M DEM.PROX:M.SG
ⲧⲁⲓ̈, ⲧⲁⲉⲓ this:F DEM.PROX:F.SG
ⲛⲁⲓ̈, ⲛⲁⲉⲓ these DEM.PROX:PL
ⲡⲉⲧⲙⲙⲁⲩ that:M DEM.DIST:M.SG
ⲧⲉⲧⲙⲙⲁⲩ that:F DEM.DIST:F.SG
ⲛⲉⲧⲙⲙⲁⲩ those DEM.DIST:PL
Distal ('Affective')
ⲡⲏ that:M DEM.DIST:M.SG
ⲧⲏ that:F DEM.DIST:F.SG
ⲛⲏ those DEM.DIST:PL

Possessive pronouns (Possessed pronouns)[edit]

Trad. Advanced Expert
with following Noun phrase
ⲡⲁ= the_one:M_of= POSS:M.SG=
ⲧⲁ= the_one:F_of= POSS:F.SG=
ⲛⲁ= the_one:PL_of= POSS:PL=
with following Suffix pronoun
ⲡⲱ mine:M, yours:M, ... POSS:M.SG
ⲧⲱ mine:F, yours:F, ... POSS:F.SG
ⲛⲟⲩ mine:PL, yours:PL, ... POSS:PL



Trad. Advanced Expert
long short
long short
ⲡ=, ⲡⲉ= the:M.SG= DEF.ART:M.SG= DEF:M.SG=
ⲧ=, ⲧⲉ= the:F.SG= DEF.ART:F.SG= DEF:F.SG=
ⲛ=, ⲛⲉ= the:PL= DEF.ART:PL= DEF:PL=

Demonstrative Articles[edit]

Trad. Advanced Expert
long short
ⲡⲉⲓ̈=, ⲡⲉⲉⲓ= this:M.SG= DEM.ART:M.SG= DEM:M.SG=
ⲧⲉⲓ̈=, ⲧⲉⲉⲓ= this:F.SG= DEM.ART:F.SG= DEM:F.SG=
ⲛⲉⲓ̈=, ⲛⲉⲉⲓ= these:PL= DEM.ART:PL= DEM.PL=

Possessive Determiners (Possessive Pronouns)[edit]

Trad. Advanced Expert
ⲡⲁ= my:M= POSS:M.SG:1SG=
ⲡⲉⲕ= your:M= POSS:M.SG:2SG.M=
ⲡⲟⲩ= your:M= POSS:M.SG:2SG.F=
ⲡⲉϥ= his:M= POSS:M.SG:3SG.M=
ⲡⲉⲥ= her:M= POSS:M.SG:3SG.F=
ⲡⲉⲛ= our:M= POSS:M.SG:1PL=
ⲡⲉⲧⲛ= your:M= POSS:M.SG:2PL=
ⲡⲉⲩ= their:M= POSS:M.SG:3PL=
ⲧⲁ= my:F= POSS:F.SG:1SG=
ⲧⲉⲕ= your.F= POSS:F.SG:2SG.M=
ⲛⲁ= my:PL= POSS:PL:1SG=


Bare nouns[edit]

Trad. Advanced Expert
ⲙⲁ place.M.SG / place.M.PL place(M.SG) / place(M.PL)
ⲉⲃⲟⲧ month.M.SG month(M)[SG]
ⲉⲃⲁⲧⲉ month:M.PL month(M)\PL
ⲡⲉ sky.F sky(F)[SG]
ⲡⲏⲩⲉ sky:F.PL sky(F)\PL
ⲥϩⲓⲙⲉ woman.F.SG woman(F)[SG]
ϩⲓⲟⲙⲉ woman.F.PL woman.F.PL
nouns without grammatical gender (genderless nouns, Layton 2011: ...)