Later Egyptian:Glossing of common Sahidic Coptic forms

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What follows is a list of Earlier Egyptian (Middle Egyptian, Old Egyptian) grammatical forms and recommendations for their glossing.

Please contribute to the list or to the discussion of the glossing of specific forms.

Grammatical forms


Personal pronouns

‘Suffix pronouns’
Trad. Advanced
-ⲓ, -ⲧ, -∅ -1SG
-ⲕ, -ⲅ -2SG.M
-∅, -ⲉ -2SG.F
-ⲥ -3SG.F
-ⲛ -1PL
-ⲧⲛ; =ⲧⲏⲩⲧⲛ -2PL; =2PL
-ⲟⲩ, -ⲩ -3PL
‘Personal second pronouns’ (Layton 2011, § 390e)
Trad. Advanced
-ⲧ -1SG
-ⲕ, -ⲥⲕ, -ⲧⲕ -2SG.M
not attested(?) -2SG.F
-ϥ, -ⲥϥ -3SG.M
-ⲥ -3SG.F
-ⲥⲛ -1PL
-ⲧⲏⲩⲧⲛ -2PL
-ⲥⲉ, -ⲥⲟⲩ -3PL
‘Independent personal pronouns’
Trad. Advanced
unbound form (free use, cf. Layton 2011: § 71)
ⲁⲛⲟⲕ 1SG
ⲛⲧⲟⲕ 2SG.M
ⲛⲧⲟ 2SG.F
ⲛⲧⲟϥ 3SG.M
ⲛⲧⲟⲥ 3SG.F
ⲁⲛⲟⲛ 1PL
ⲛⲧⲱⲧⲛ 2PL
ⲛⲧⲟⲟⲩ 3PL
bound form (clitic, in Nominal Sentences; cf. Layton 2011: § 79)
ⲁⲛⲅ=, ⲁⲛⲟⲕ= 1SG.M
ⲛⲧⲕ=, ⲛⲧⲟⲕ= 2SG.M
ⲛⲧⲉ=, ⲛⲧⲟ= 2SG.F
ⲁⲛ=, ⲁⲛⲟⲛ= 1PL
ⲛⲧⲉⲧⲛ=, ⲛⲧⲱⲧⲛ= 2PL
‘Prefixed personal pronouns’
Trad. Advanced
in Durative Sentences (= bipartite pattern; Layton 2011: § 78)
ϯ- 1SG-
ⲕ-, ⲅ- 2SG.M-
ⲧⲉ-, ⲧⲣ- 2SG.F-
ϥ- 3SG.M-
ⲥ- 3SG.F-
ⲧⲛ- 1PL-
ⲧⲉⲧⲛ- 2PL-
ⲥⲉ- 3PL-
in Non-durative Sentences (used with conjugation bases = tripartite pattern)
ⲓ-, ⲓ̈-, ⲁ-, 1SG-
ⲕ-, ⲉⲕ- 2SG.M-
ⲣ-, ⲣⲉ-, ⲉ-, ∅- (and similar) 2SG.F-
ϥ-, ⲉϥ- 3SG.M-
ⲥ-, ⲉⲥ- 3SG.F-
ⲛ-, ⲉⲛ- 1PL-
ⲧⲛ-, ⲧⲉⲧⲛ-, ⲉⲧⲛ- 2PL-
ⲟⲩ-, ⲩ- 3PL-

Demonstrative pronouns

Trad. Advanced Expert
ⲡⲁⲓ̈, ⲡⲁⲉⲓ this:M DEM.PROX:M.SG
ⲧⲁⲓ̈, ⲧⲁⲉⲓ this:F DEM.PROX:F.SG
ⲛⲁⲓ̈, ⲛⲁⲉⲓ these DEM.PROX:PL
ⲡⲉⲧⲙⲙⲁⲩ that:M DEM.DIST:M.SG
ⲧⲉⲧⲙⲙⲁⲩ that:F DEM.DIST:F.SG
ⲛⲉⲧⲙⲙⲁⲩ those DEM.DIST:PL
Distal ('Affective')
ⲡⲏ that:M DEM.DIST:M.SG
ⲧⲏ that:F DEM.DIST:F.SG
ⲛⲏ those DEM.DIST:PL

Possessive pronouns (Possessed pronouns)

Trad. Advanced Expert
with following Noun phrase
ⲡⲁ= the_one:M_of= POSS:M.SG=
ⲧⲁ= the_one:F_of= POSS:F.SG=
ⲛⲁ= the_one:PL_of= POSS:PL=
with following Suffix pronoun
ⲡⲱ mine:M, yours:M, ... POSS:M.SG
ⲧⲱ mine:F, yours:F, ... POSS:F.SG
ⲛⲟⲩ mine:PL, yours:PL, ... POSS:PL



Trad. Advanced Expert
long short
long short
ⲡ=, ⲡⲉ= the:M.SG= DEF.ART:M.SG= DEF:M.SG=
ⲧ=, ⲧⲉ= the:F.SG= DEF.ART:F.SG= DEF:F.SG=
ⲛ=, ⲛⲉ= the:PL= DEF.ART:PL= DEF:PL=

Demonstrative Articles

Trad. Advanced Expert
long short
ⲡⲉⲓ̈=, ⲡⲉⲉⲓ= this:M.SG= DEM.ART:M.SG= DEM:M.SG=
ⲧⲉⲓ̈=, ⲧⲉⲉⲓ= this:F.SG= DEM.ART:F.SG= DEM:F.SG=
ⲛⲉⲓ̈=, ⲛⲉⲉⲓ= these:PL= DEM.ART:PL= DEM.PL=

Possessive Determiners (Possessive Pronouns)

Trad. Advanced Expert
ⲡⲁ= my:M= POSS:M.SG:1SG=
ⲡⲉⲕ= your:M= POSS:M.SG:2SG.M=
ⲡⲟⲩ= your:M= POSS:M.SG:2SG.F=
ⲡⲉϥ= his:M= POSS:M.SG:3SG.M=
ⲡⲉⲥ= her:M= POSS:M.SG:3SG.F=
ⲡⲉⲛ= our:M= POSS:M.SG:1PL=
ⲡⲉⲧⲛ= your:M= POSS:M.SG:2PL=
ⲡⲉⲩ= their:M= POSS:M.SG:3PL=
ⲧⲁ= my:F= POSS:F.SG:1SG=
ⲧⲉⲕ= your.F= POSS:F.SG:2SG.M=
ⲛⲁ= my:PL= POSS:PL:1SG=